diff mbox series

[v2,4/6] BTF: add core functionality

Message ID 20210622103318.478914-5-gprocida@google.com
State New
Headers show
Series BTF ABI | expand

Commit Message

Giuliano Procida June 22, 2021, 10:33 a.m. UTC
This commit adds core BTF functionality. The code can:

- read ELF symbols using the symtab_reader
- read BTF into a graph of type and symbol information
  - optionally perform a text dump of BTF as it's read
- compute diffs between two BTF graphs as a diff graph
  - done using DFS and with the help of the SCC finder
- create and cache full names for types
- serialise a diff graph as a textual diff report
  - done using DFS

The files are almost a straight copy of the originals.

Changes:

- Files renamed and #includes updated.
- Header guards and include order are now in libabigail style.

	* COMPILING: Add note about BTF dependency.
	* configure.ac: Add check for <linux/btf.h>.
	* src/Makefile.am: Add abg-btf.cc, conditional on C++17 and
	presence of <linux/btf.h>.
	* include/abg-btf.h: New file.
	* src/abg-btf.cc: New file.

Co-authored-by: Maria Teguiani <teguiani@google.com>
Signed-off-by: Giuliano Procida <gprocida@google.com>
---
 COMPILING         |    5 +
 configure.ac      |    7 +
 include/abg-btf.h |  582 +++++++++++++++++++
 src/Makefile.am   |    9 +-
 src/abg-btf.cc    | 1369 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 5 files changed, 1971 insertions(+), 1 deletion(-)
 create mode 100644 include/abg-btf.h
 create mode 100644 src/abg-btf.cc
diff mbox series

Patch

diff --git a/COMPILING b/COMPILING
index 33613a37..75a6588a 100644
--- a/COMPILING
+++ b/COMPILING
@@ -5,6 +5,11 @@  the moment the dependencies are the following Free Software packages:
     libtool
     libxml2
 
+To build the BTF tools, you will need <linux/btf.h> which can be found
+in the development package of:
+
+     linux-libc
+
 If you are building from the Git repository, then you'd also need the
 following packages:
 
diff --git a/configure.ac b/configure.ac
index edd03cf8..d9125d99 100644
--- a/configure.ac
+++ b/configure.ac
@@ -603,6 +603,13 @@  if test x$ENABLE_CXX17 = xyes; then
 fi
 AM_CONDITIONAL(ENABLE_CXX17, test x$ENABLE_CXX17 = xyes)
 
+dnl Check for the presence of the BTF header.
+HAVE_BTF=no
+AC_CHECK_HEADER([linux/btf.h],
+		[HAVE_BTF=yes],
+		[AC_MSG_NOTICE([No linux/btf.h found, omitted BTF support.])])
+AM_CONDITIONAL(HAVE_BTF, test x$HAVE_BTF = xyes)
+
 dnl Set the list of libraries libabigail depends on
 
 DEPS_LIBS="$XML_LIBS $ELF_LIBS $DW_LIBS"
diff --git a/include/abg-btf.h b/include/abg-btf.h
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..f7243fa3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/include/abg-btf.h
@@ -0,0 +1,582 @@ 
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
+// -*- mode: C++ -*-
+//
+// Copyright (C) 2020-2021 Google, Inc.
+//
+// Author: Maria Teguiani
+// Author: Giuliano Procida
+
+#ifndef __ABG_BTF_H__
+#define __ABG_BTF_H__
+
+#include <fcntl.h>
+#include <linux/btf.h>
+
+#include <cstdint>
+#include <cstdlib>
+#include <iostream>
+#include <map>
+#include <set>
+#include <sstream>
+#include <string>
+#include <unordered_map>
+#include <unordered_set>
+#include <vector>
+
+#include "abg-ir.h"
+#include "abg-scc.h"
+
+namespace abigail {
+namespace btf {
+
+#define m_assert(expr, msg) assert(((void)(msg), (expr)))
+
+using Kind = uint32_t;
+
+// A Member refers to a data element of a struct or union, used in the context
+// of StructUnion
+struct Member {
+  uint32_t typeId_;
+  uint32_t offset_;
+  uint32_t bitfieldSize_;
+};
+
+// A Parameter refers to a variable declared in the function declaration, used
+// in the context of Function
+struct Parameter {
+  std::string name_;
+  uint32_t typeId_;
+};
+
+struct Secinfo {
+  uint32_t typeId_;
+  uint32_t offset_;
+  uint32_t bytesize_;
+};
+
+enum class ForwardDeclarationKind { STRUCT, UNION };
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, ForwardDeclarationKind kind);
+
+class Type;
+
+using Comparison = std::pair<const Type *, const Type *>;
+
+enum class Precedence { NIL, POINTER, ARRAY_FUNCTION, ATOMIC };
+enum class Side { LEFT, RIGHT };
+
+class Name {
+ public:
+  explicit Name(const std::string &name)
+      : left_(name), precedence_(Precedence::NIL), right_() {}
+  Name(const std::string &left, Precedence precedence, const std::string &right)
+      : left_(left), precedence_(precedence), right_(right) {}
+  Name Add(Side side, Precedence precedence, const std::string &text) const;
+  Name Qualify(const std::set<Kind> &qualifiers) const;
+  std::ostream &Print(std::ostream &os) const;
+
+ private:
+  std::string left_;
+  Precedence precedence_;
+  std::string right_;
+};
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Name &name);
+
+using NameCache = std::unordered_map<const Type *, Name>;
+
+struct DiffDetail {
+  DiffDetail(const std::string &text, const std::optional<Comparison> &edge)
+      : text_(text), edge_(edge) {}
+  std::string text_;
+  std::optional<Comparison> edge_;
+};
+
+using Diff = std::vector<DiffDetail>;
+
+struct Result {
+  void AddDiff(const std::string &text) {
+    equals_ = false;
+    details_.emplace_back(text, std::optional<Comparison>());
+  }
+
+  void AddDiff(const std::string &text, Comparison comparison) {
+    equals_ = false;
+    details_.emplace_back(text, comparison);
+  }
+
+  void MaybeAddDiff(const std::string &text,
+                    const std::pair<bool, std::optional<Comparison>> &p) {
+    equals_ &= p.first;
+    const auto &diff = p.second;
+    if (diff)
+      details_.emplace_back(text, diff);
+  }
+
+  // Maximally powerful lazy version, takes a function that outputs an "edge"
+  // diff description, to be used only when a diff is present.
+  void MaybeAddDiff(std::function<void(std::ostream &)> text,
+                    const std::pair<bool, std::optional<Comparison>> &p) {
+    equals_ &= p.first;
+    const auto &diff = p.second;
+    if (diff) {
+      std::ostringstream os;
+      text(os);
+      details_.emplace_back(os.str(), diff);
+    }
+  }
+
+  template<typename T> void MaybeAddDiff(
+      const std::string &text, const T &before, const T &after) {
+    if (before != after) {
+      equals_ = false;
+      std::ostringstream os;
+      os << text << " changed from " << before << " to " << after;
+      AddDiff(os.str());
+    }
+  }
+
+  // Lazy version.
+  template<typename T> void MaybeAddDiff(
+      std::function<void(std::ostream &)> text,
+      const T &before, const T &after) {
+    if (before != after) {
+      equals_ = false;
+      std::ostringstream os;
+      text(os);
+      os << " changed from " << before << " to " << after;
+      AddDiff(os.str());
+    }
+  }
+
+  bool equals_ = true;
+  Diff details_;
+};
+
+struct HashComparison {
+  size_t operator()(const Comparison &comparison) const {
+    size_t seed = 0;
+    std::hash<const Type *> h;
+    combine_hash(seed, h(comparison.first));
+    combine_hash(seed, h(comparison.second));
+    return seed;
+  }
+  static void combine_hash(size_t &seed, size_t hash) {
+    seed ^= hash + 0x9e3779b97f4a7c15 + (seed << 12) + (seed >> 4);
+  }
+};
+
+using Outcomes = std::unordered_map<Comparison, Diff, HashComparison>;
+// unvisited (absent) -> started (false) -> finished (true)
+using Seen = std::unordered_map<Comparison, bool, HashComparison>;
+
+void Print(const Comparison &comparison, const Outcomes &outcomes, Seen &seen,
+           NameCache &names, std::ostream &os, size_t indent = 0);
+
+void Print(const Diff &details, const Outcomes &outcomes, Seen &seen,
+           NameCache &names, std::ostream &os, size_t indent = 0);
+
+class Type {
+ public:
+  Type(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types, uint32_t index,
+       Kind kind)
+      : types_(types), index_(index), kind_(kind) {}
+  virtual ~Type() = default;
+  uint32_t GetIndex() const { return index_; }
+  Kind GetKind() const { return kind_; }
+  const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &GetTypes() const {
+    return types_;
+  }
+
+  // as<Type>() provides a method to defer downcasting to the base class,
+  // instead of needing to use dynamic_cast in a local context. If the type is
+  // not correct, the assert will trigger in debug mode. In release mode, this
+  // will crash dereferencing the nullptr.
+  template <typename Target>
+  const Target &as() const {
+    static_assert(std::is_convertible<Target *, Type *>::value,
+                  "Target must publically inherit Type");
+    const Target *t = dynamic_cast<const Target *>(this);
+    m_assert(t, "Invalid downcast");
+    return *t;
+  }
+  // Separate qualifiers from underlying type.
+  //
+  // The caller must always be prepared to receive a different type as
+  // qualifiers are sometimes discarded.
+  virtual const Type &ResolveQualifiers(std::set<Kind> &qualifiers) const;
+  virtual const Type &ResolveTypedef(
+      std::vector<std::string> &typedefs) const;
+
+  const Name &GetDescription(NameCache &names) const;
+  static Result CompareSymbols(
+      const std::map<std::string, const Type *const> &lhs,
+      const std::map<std::string, const Type *const> &rhs,
+      Outcomes &outcomes);
+
+ protected:
+  struct State {
+    explicit State(Outcomes &o) : outcomes(o) { }
+    Outcomes &outcomes;
+    std::unordered_set<Comparison, HashComparison> known_equal;
+    Outcomes provisional;
+    SCC<Comparison, HashComparison> scc;
+  };
+  const Type &GetTypeAtIndex(size_t index) const;
+
+  virtual Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const = 0;
+  virtual Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const = 0;
+  static Comparison Removed(const Type &lhs, State &state);
+  static Comparison Added(const Type &rhs, State &state);
+  static std::pair<bool, std::optional<Comparison>> Compare(
+      const Type &lhs, const Type &rhs, State &state);
+
+ private:
+  static std::string GetDiffMessage(NameCache &names,
+                                    const Type &lhs, const Type &rhs,
+                                    const std::string &message = std::string());
+  const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types_;
+  const uint32_t index_;
+  const Kind kind_;
+};
+
+class Void : public Type {
+ public:
+  Void(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types, uint32_t index,
+       Kind kind)
+      : Type(types, index, kind) {}
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+};
+
+class Ptr : public Type {
+ public:
+  Ptr(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types, uint32_t index,
+      Kind kind, uint32_t pointeeTypeId)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        pointeeTypeId_(pointeeTypeId) {}
+  uint32_t GetPointeeTypeId() const { return pointeeTypeId_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const uint32_t pointeeTypeId_;
+};
+
+class Typedef : public Type {
+ public:
+  Typedef(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types, uint32_t index,
+          const std::string &name, Kind kind, uint32_t referredTypeId)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        name_(name),
+        referredTypeId_(referredTypeId) {}
+  const std::string &GetName() const { return name_; }
+  uint32_t GetReferredTypeId() const { return referredTypeId_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+  const Type &ResolveTypedef(
+      std::vector<std::string> &typedefs) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const std::string name_;
+  const uint32_t referredTypeId_;
+};
+
+class Qualifier : public Type {
+ public:
+  Qualifier(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+            uint32_t index, Kind kind, uint32_t qualifiedTypeId)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        qualifiedTypeId_(qualifiedTypeId) {}
+  uint32_t GetQualifiedTypeId() const { return qualifiedTypeId_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+  const Type &ResolveQualifiers(std::set<Kind> &qualifiers) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const uint32_t qualifiedTypeId_;
+};
+
+class Integer : public Type {
+ public:
+  Integer(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types, uint32_t index,
+          const std::string &name, Kind kind, uint32_t encoding,
+          uint32_t offset, uint32_t bitsize, uint32_t bytesize)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        name_(name),
+        offset_(offset),
+        bitsize_(bitsize),
+        bytesize_(bytesize),
+        isBool_(encoding & BTF_INT_BOOL),
+        isSigned_(encoding & BTF_INT_SIGNED),
+        isChar_(encoding & BTF_INT_CHAR) {}
+  const std::string &GetName() const { return name_; }
+  bool isBool() const { return isBool_; }
+  bool isSigned() const { return isSigned_; }
+  bool isChar() const { return isChar_; }
+  uint32_t GetOffset() const { return offset_; }
+
+  // GetBitSize() gives the semantics of the field. GetByteSize() gives the
+  // storage size, and is equal or greater than GetBitSize()*8
+  uint32_t GetBitSize() const { return bitsize_; }
+  uint32_t GetByteSize() const { return bytesize_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const std::string name_;
+  const uint32_t offset_;
+  const uint32_t bitsize_;
+  const uint32_t bytesize_;
+  const bool isBool_;
+  const bool isSigned_;
+  const bool isChar_;
+};
+
+class Array : public Type {
+ public:
+  Array(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types, uint32_t index,
+        Kind kind, uint32_t elementTypeId, uint32_t indexTypeId,
+        uint32_t numOfElements)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        elementTypeId_(elementTypeId),
+        indexTypeId_(indexTypeId),
+        numOfElements_(numOfElements) {}
+  uint32_t GetElementTypeId() const { return elementTypeId_; }
+  uint32_t GetIndexTypeId() const { return indexTypeId_; }
+  uint32_t GetNumberOfElements() const { return numOfElements_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const uint32_t elementTypeId_;
+  const uint32_t indexTypeId_;
+  const uint32_t numOfElements_;
+};
+
+class StructUnion : public Type {
+ public:
+  StructUnion(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+              uint32_t index, const std::string &name, Kind kind,
+              uint32_t bytesize, std::map<std::string, Member> members)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        name_(name),
+        bytesize_(bytesize),
+        members_(members) {}
+  const std::string &GetName() const { return name_; }
+  uint32_t GetByteSize() const { return bytesize_; }
+  const std::map<std::string, Member> &GetMembers() const { return members_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const std::string name_;
+  const uint32_t bytesize_;
+  const std::map<std::string, Member> members_;
+};
+
+class Enumeration : public Type {
+ public:
+  Enumeration(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+              uint32_t index, const std::string &name, Kind kind,
+              uint32_t bytesize, std::map<std::string, int> enumerators)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        name_(name),
+        bytesize_(bytesize),
+        enumerators_(enumerators) {}
+  const std::string &GetName() const { return name_; }
+  uint32_t GetByteSize() const { return bytesize_; }
+  const std::map<std::string, int> &GetEnums() const { return enumerators_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const std::string name_;
+  const uint32_t bytesize_;
+  const std::map<std::string, int> enumerators_;
+};
+
+// BTF only considers structs and unions as forward-declared types, and does not
+// include forward-declared enums. They are treated as BTF_KIND_ENUMs with vlen
+// set to zero
+class ForwardDeclaration : public Type {
+ public:
+  ForwardDeclaration(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+                     uint32_t index, const std::string &name, Kind kind,
+                     bool isUnion)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        name_(name),
+        fwdKind_(isUnion ? ForwardDeclarationKind::UNION
+                         : ForwardDeclarationKind::STRUCT) {}
+  const std::string &GetName() const { return name_; }
+  ForwardDeclarationKind GetFwdKind() const { return fwdKind_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const std::string name_;
+  const ForwardDeclarationKind fwdKind_;
+};
+
+class Function : public Type {
+ public:
+  enum class Linkage : uint16_t { STATIC, GLOBAL, EXTERN };
+  Function(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+           uint32_t index, const std::string &name, Kind kind,
+           uint32_t referredTypeId, Linkage linkage)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        name_(name),
+        referredTypeId_(referredTypeId),
+        linkage_(linkage) {}
+  const std::string &GetName() const { return name_; }
+  uint32_t GetReferredTypeId() const { return referredTypeId_; }
+  Linkage GetLinkage() const { return linkage_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const std::string name_;
+  const uint32_t referredTypeId_;
+  const Linkage linkage_;
+};
+
+class FunctionPrototype : public Type {
+ public:
+  FunctionPrototype(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+                    uint32_t index, Kind kind, uint32_t returnTypeId,
+                    std::vector<Parameter> parameters)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        returnTypeId_(returnTypeId),
+        parameters_(parameters) {}
+  uint32_t GetReturnTypeId() const { return returnTypeId_; }
+  const std::vector<Parameter> &GetParameters() const { return parameters_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const uint32_t returnTypeId_;
+  const std::vector<Parameter> parameters_;
+};
+
+class Variable : public Type {
+ public:
+  enum class Linkage : uint32_t { STATIC, GLOBAL_ALLOC, GLOBAL_EXTERN };
+  Variable(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+           uint32_t index, const std::string &name, Kind kind,
+           unsigned varTypeId, Linkage linkage)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        name_(name),
+        varTypeId_(varTypeId),
+        linkage_(linkage) {}
+  const std::string &GetName() const { return name_; }
+  uint32_t GetVarTypeId() const { return varTypeId_; }
+  Linkage GetLinkage() const { return linkage_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const std::string name_;
+  const uint32_t varTypeId_;
+  const Linkage linkage_;
+};
+
+class DataSection : public Type {
+ public:
+  DataSection(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+              uint32_t index, Kind kind, uint32_t bytesize,
+              std::vector<Secinfo> secinfos)
+      : Type(types, index, kind),
+        bytesize_(bytesize),
+        secinfos_(secinfos) {}
+  uint32_t GetByteSize() const { return bytesize_; }
+  const std::vector<Secinfo> &GetSecinfos() const { return secinfos_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  const uint32_t bytesize_;
+  const std::vector<Secinfo> secinfos_;
+};
+
+// Not actually a BTF type but needed for uniformity of representation.
+class ElfSymbol : public Type {
+ public:
+  ElfSymbol(const std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> &types,
+            abigail::elf_symbol_sptr symbol, uint32_t type_id)
+      : Type(types, -1, -1), symbol_(symbol), type_id_(type_id) {}
+  abigail::elf_symbol_sptr GetElfSymbol() const { return symbol_; }
+  uint32_t GetTypeId() const { return type_id_; }
+  Name MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const final;
+  Result Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const final;
+
+ private:
+  abigail::elf_symbol_sptr symbol_;
+  uint32_t type_id_;
+};
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Ptr &bp);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Typedef &bp);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Qualifier &bp);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Integer &bi);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Array &ba);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const StructUnion &bsu);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Enumeration &be);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const ForwardDeclaration &bfd);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Function &bf);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const FunctionPrototype &bfp);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Variable &bv);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const DataSection &bds);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const ElfSymbol &bes);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, Variable::Linkage linkage);
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, Function::Linkage linkage);
+
+// BTF Specification: https://www.kernel.org/doc/html/latest/bpf/btf.html
+class Structs {
+ public:
+  Structs(const char *start, std::unique_ptr<abigail::ir::environment> env,
+          const abigail::symtab_reader::symtab_sptr tab,
+          const bool verbose = false);
+  ~Structs() = default;
+  void PrintHeader();
+  void BuildTypes();
+  void PrintStringSection();
+  const std::map<std::string, const Type *const> &GetSymbols(
+      bool use_elf_symbols) const {
+    return use_elf_symbols ? elf_symbols_ : btf_symbols_;
+  }
+
+ private:
+  const btf_header *header_;
+  const btf_type *type_section_;
+  const char *str_section_;
+  const std::unique_ptr<abigail::ir::environment> env_;
+  const abigail::symtab_reader::symtab_sptr tab_;
+  const bool verbose_;
+
+  std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Type>> types_;
+  std::unordered_map<std::string, uint32_t> btf_symbol_types_;
+  std::map<std::string, const Type *const> btf_symbols_;
+  std::map<std::string, const Type *const> elf_symbols_;
+
+  std::vector<std::string> bad_names_;
+  std::string bad_prefix_1_;
+  std::string bad_prefix_2_;
+
+  int BuildOneType(const btf_type *t, uint32_t index);
+  void BuildElfSymbols();
+  std::map<std::string, Member> BuildMembers(
+      bool kflag, const btf_member *members, size_t vlen);
+  std::map<std::string, int> BuildEnums(const struct btf_enum *enums,
+                                        size_t vlen);
+  std::vector<Parameter> BuildParams(const struct btf_param *params,
+                                     size_t vlen);
+  std::vector<Secinfo> BuildDatasec(const btf_type *type, size_t vlen);
+  std::string GetName(uint32_t name_off);
+};
+
+Structs ReadFile(const std::string &path, bool verbose = false);
+
+}  // end namespace btf
+}  // end namespace abigail
+
+#endif  // __ABG_BTF_H__
diff --git a/src/Makefile.am b/src/Makefile.am
index 430ce98d..d67c604c 100644
--- a/src/Makefile.am
+++ b/src/Makefile.am
@@ -8,6 +8,12 @@  VIZ_SOURCES = abg-viz-common.cc	\
 		abg-viz-dot.cc	\
 		abg-viz-svg.cc
 
+if ENABLE_CXX17
+if HAVE_BTF
+  BTF_SOURCES = abg-btf.cc
+endif
+endif
+
 libabigail_la_SOURCES =			\
 abg-internal.h				\
 abg-traverse.cc				\
@@ -39,7 +45,8 @@  abg-elf-helpers.cc			\
 abg-regex.cc				\
 abg-symtab-reader.h			\
 abg-symtab-reader.cc			\
-$(VIZ_SOURCES)
+$(VIZ_SOURCES)				\
+$(BTF_SOURCES)
 
 libabigail_la_LIBADD = $(DEPS_LIBS)
 libabigail_la_LDFLAGS = -lpthread -Wl,--as-needed -no-undefined
diff --git a/src/abg-btf.cc b/src/abg-btf.cc
new file mode 100644
index 00000000..39a8e480
--- /dev/null
+++ b/src/abg-btf.cc
@@ -0,0 +1,1369 @@ 
+// SPDX-License-Identifier: Apache-2.0 WITH LLVM-exception
+// -*- mode: C++ -*-
+//
+// Copyright (C) 2020-2021 Google, Inc.
+//
+// Author: Maria Teguiani
+// Author: Giuliano Procida
+
+#include <elfutils/libdwfl.h>
+
+#include <algorithm>
+#include <array>
+#include <iomanip>
+#include <set>
+#include <sstream>
+#include <string_view>
+
+#include "abg-elf-helpers.h"
+#include "abg-symtab-reader.h"
+#include "abg-tools-utils.h"
+
+#include "abg-btf.h"
+
+namespace abigail {
+namespace btf {
+
+// This is a helper map that yields the name of a Type in the preferred
+// print style by indexing into the vector with a Kind
+static constexpr std::array<std::string_view, 16> kKindNames = {
+  "void type",
+  "integer type",
+  "pointer type",
+  "array type",
+  "struct type",
+  "union type",
+  "enum type",
+  "forward declaration",
+  "typedef",
+  "volatile",
+  "const",
+  "restrict",
+  "function",
+  "function type",
+  "variable",
+  "data section"
+};
+
+// This matches bpftool dump format raw.
+static constexpr std::array<std::string_view, 16> kRawKindNames = {
+  "VOID",
+  "INT",
+  "PTR",
+  "ARRAY",
+  "STRUCT",
+  "UNION",
+  "ENUM",
+  "FWD",
+  "TYPEDEF",
+  "VOLATILE",
+  "CONST",
+  "RESTRICT",
+  "FUNC",
+  "FUNC_PROTO",
+  "VAR",
+  "DATASEC"
+};
+
+static constexpr std::array<std::string_view, 3> kVarLinkage = {
+  "static",
+  "global-alloc",
+  "global-extern"  // NOTE: bpftool currently says "(unknown)"
+};
+
+static constexpr std::array<std::string_view, 3> kFunLinkage = {
+  "static",
+  "global",
+  "extern"
+};
+
+Name Name::Add(Side side, Precedence precedence,
+               const std::string &text) const {
+  bool bracket = precedence < precedence_;
+  std::ostringstream left;
+  std::ostringstream right;
+
+  // Bits on the left need (sometimes) to be separated by whitespace.
+  left << left_;
+  if (bracket)
+    left << '(';
+  else if (side == Side::LEFT)
+    left << ' ';
+
+  (side == Side::LEFT ? left : right) << text;
+
+  // Bits on the right are arrays [] and functions () and need no whitespace.
+  if (bracket)
+    right << ')';
+  right << right_;
+
+  return Name{left.str(), precedence, right.str()};
+}
+
+Name Name::Qualify(const std::set<Kind> &qualifiers) const {
+  // this covers the case when bad qualifiers have been dropped
+  if (qualifiers.empty())
+    return *this;
+  // add qualifiers to the left or right of the type stem
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  if (precedence_ == Precedence::NIL) {
+    for (const auto &qualifier : qualifiers)
+      os << kKindNames[qualifier] << ' ';
+    os << left_;
+  } else if (precedence_ == Precedence::POINTER) {
+    os << left_;
+    for (const auto &qualifier : qualifiers)
+      os << ' ' << kKindNames[qualifier];
+  } else {
+    m_assert(false, "unqualifiable element");
+  }
+  // qualifiers attach without affecting precedence
+  return Name{os.str(), precedence_, right_};
+}
+
+std::ostream &Name::Print(std::ostream &os) const {
+  return os << left_ << right_;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Name &name) {
+  return name.Print(os);
+}
+
+// There are several reasons for treating CV-qualifiers specially.
+// 1. They upset the precedence scheme we've got going here.
+// 2. Qualifiers need to be placed according to what they qualify.
+// 3. The BTF model doesn't preclude ordering and duplication issues.
+// 4. A better model would have qualifiers as part of the types.
+const Name &Type::GetDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  // infinite recursion prevention - insert at most once
+  static const Name black_hole{"#"};
+
+  auto insertion = names.insert({this, black_hole});
+  Name &cached = insertion.first->second;
+
+  if (insertion.second) {
+    // newly inserted, need to determine name of type
+    std::set<Kind> qualifiers;
+    const Type &under = ResolveQualifiers(qualifiers);
+    if (this == &under) {
+      // unqualified, simple case
+      cached = MakeDescription(names);
+    } else {
+      // qualified, but we may end up adding no qualifiers
+      auto insertion_under = names.insert({&under, black_hole});
+      Name &cached_under = insertion_under.first->second;
+
+      // newly inserted underlying type name
+      if (insertion_under.second)
+        cached_under = under.MakeDescription(names);
+
+      // add the qualifiers (to the appropriate side)
+      cached = cached_under.Qualify(qualifiers);
+    }
+  }
+
+  return cached;
+}
+
+std::string GetPlainDescription(NameCache &names, const Type &type) {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  os << '"' << type.GetDescription(names) << '"';
+  return os.str();
+}
+
+std::string GetTypedefDescription(NameCache &names, const Type &given) {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  std::vector<std::string> typedefs;
+  const Type &type = given.ResolveTypedef(typedefs);
+  for (auto td : typedefs)
+    os << std::quoted(td) << " = ";
+  os << GetPlainDescription(names, type);
+  return os.str();
+}
+
+constexpr size_t INDENT_INCREMENT = 2;
+
+void Print(const Comparison &comparison, const Outcomes &outcomes, Seen &seen,
+           NameCache &names, std::ostream &os, size_t indent) {
+  const auto *lhs = comparison.first;
+  const auto *rhs = comparison.second;
+  if (!rhs) {
+    os << GetPlainDescription(names, *lhs) << " was removed\n";
+    return;
+  }
+  if (!lhs) {
+    os << GetPlainDescription(names, *rhs) << " was added\n";
+    return;
+  }
+  bool td = lhs->GetKind() == BTF_KIND_TYPEDEF
+            || rhs->GetKind() == BTF_KIND_TYPEDEF;
+  const std::string lhs_descr = td ? GetTypedefDescription(names, *lhs)
+                                   : GetPlainDescription(names, *lhs);
+  const std::string rhs_descr = td ? GetTypedefDescription(names, *rhs)
+                                   : GetPlainDescription(names, *rhs);
+  if (lhs_descr == rhs_descr)
+    os << lhs_descr << " changed";
+  else
+    os << "changed from " << lhs_descr << " to " << rhs_descr;
+  const auto &details = outcomes.find(comparison)->second;
+  auto insertion = seen.insert({comparison, false});
+  if (!insertion.second) {
+    if (!insertion.first->second)
+      os << " (being reported)";
+    else if (!details.empty())
+      os << " (already reported)";
+  }
+  os << '\n';
+  if (insertion.second) {
+    Print(details, outcomes, seen, names, os, indent + INDENT_INCREMENT);
+    insertion.first->second = true;
+  }
+  // paragraph spacing
+  if (!indent)
+    os << '\n';
+}
+
+void Print(const Diff &details, const Outcomes &outcomes, Seen &seen,
+           NameCache &names, std::ostream &os, size_t indent) {
+  for (const auto &detail : details) {
+    os << std::string(indent, ' ') << detail.text_;
+    if (!detail.edge_) {
+      os << '\n';
+    } else {
+      os << ' ';
+      Print(detail.edge_.value(), outcomes, seen, names, os, indent);
+    }
+  }
+}
+
+const Type &Type::GetTypeAtIndex(size_t index) const {
+  m_assert(index < types_.size(), "Index out of bounds.");
+  return *(types_[index].get());
+}
+
+std::string QualifiersMessage(Kind qualifier, const std::string &action) {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  os << "qualifier " << kKindNames[qualifier] << ' ' << action;
+  return os.str();
+}
+
+Result Type::CompareSymbols(
+    const std::map<std::string, const Type *const> &lhs,
+    const std::map<std::string, const Type *const> &rhs,
+    Outcomes &outcomes) {
+  Result result;
+  State state(outcomes);
+  auto lit = lhs.begin();
+  auto rit = rhs.begin();
+  // Each branch contains a NULL pointer check in case BTF information is
+  // missing for a symbol. We conservatively have to assume that any symbol
+  // without BTF information may have changed type.
+  //
+  // NOTE: this currently happens for all global variables
+  while (lit != lhs.end() || rit != rhs.end()) {
+    if (rit == rhs.end() || (lit != lhs.end() && lit->first < rit->first)) {
+      // removed
+      if (lit->second) {
+        auto diff = Removed(*lit->second, state);
+        result.AddDiff("symbol", diff);
+      } else {
+        std::ostringstream os;
+        os << "symbol " << std::quoted(lit->first)
+           << " (of unknown type) was removed";
+        result.AddDiff(os.str());
+      }
+      ++lit;
+    } else if (lit == lhs.end() || (rit != rhs.end() && lit->first > rit->first)) {
+      // added
+      if (rit->second) {
+        auto diff = Added(*rit->second, state);
+        result.AddDiff("symbol", diff);
+      } else {
+        std::ostringstream os;
+        os << "symbol " << std::quoted(rit->first)
+           << " (if unknown type) was added";
+        result.AddDiff(os.str());
+      }
+      ++rit;
+    } else {
+      // in both
+      if (lit->second && rit->second) {
+        auto diff = Compare(*lit->second, *rit->second, state);
+        result.MaybeAddDiff("symbol", diff);
+      } else {
+        std::ostringstream os;
+        os << "symbol " << std::quoted(lit->first)
+           << " (of unknown type) may have changed";
+        result.AddDiff(os.str());
+      }
+      ++lit;
+      ++rit;
+    }
+  }
+  return result;
+}
+
+Comparison Type::Removed(const Type &lhs, State &state) {
+  Comparison comparison{&lhs, nullptr};
+  state.outcomes.insert({comparison, {}});
+  return comparison;
+}
+
+Comparison Type::Added(const Type &rhs, State &state) {
+  Comparison comparison{nullptr, &rhs};
+  state.outcomes.insert({comparison, {}});
+  return comparison;
+}
+
+/*
+ * We compute a diff for every visited node.
+ *
+ * Each node has one of:
+ * 1. equals = true; perhaps only tentative edge differences
+ * 2. equals = false; at least one definitive node or edge difference
+ *
+ * On the first visit to a node we can put a placeholder in, the equals value is
+ * irrelevant, the diff may contain local and edge differences. If an SCC
+ * contains only internal edge differences (and equivalently equals is true)
+ * then the differences can all (eventually) be discarded.
+ *
+ * On exit from the first visit to a node, equals reflects the tree of
+ * comparisons below that node in the DFS and similarly, the diff graph starting
+ * from the node contains a subtree of this tree plus potentially edges to
+ * existing nodes to the side or below (already visited SCCs, sharing), or above
+ * (back links forming cycles).
+ *
+ * When an SCC is closed, all equals implies deleting all diffs, any false
+ * implies updating all to false.
+ *
+ * On subsequent visits to a node, there are 2 cases. The node is still open:
+ * return true and an edge diff. The node is closed, return the stored value and
+ * an edge diff.
+ */
+std::pair<bool, std::optional<Comparison>> Type::Compare(
+    const Type &lhs, const Type &rhs, Type::State &state) {
+  const Comparison comparison{&lhs, &rhs};
+
+  // 1. Check if the comparison has an already known result.
+  if (state.known_equal.count(comparison)) {
+    // Already visited and closed. Equal.
+    return {true, {}};
+  }
+  if (state.outcomes.count(comparison)) {
+    // Already visited and closed. Different.
+    return {false, {comparison}};
+  }
+  // Either open or not visited at all
+
+  // 2. Record node with Strongly-Connected Component finder.
+  auto handle = state.scc.Open(comparison);
+  if (!handle) {
+    // Already open.
+    //
+    // Return a dummy true outcome and some tentative diffs. The diffs may end
+    // up not being used and, while it would be nice to be lazier, they encode
+    // all the cycling-breaking edges needed to recreate a full diff structure.
+    return {true, {comparison}};
+  }
+  // Comparison opened, need to close it before returning.
+
+  Result result;
+
+  std::set<Kind> lhs_quals;
+  std::set<Kind> rhs_quals;
+  const Type &l = lhs.ResolveQualifiers(lhs_quals);
+  const Type &r = rhs.ResolveQualifiers(rhs_quals);
+  if (!lhs_quals.empty() || !rhs_quals.empty()) {
+    // 3.1 Qualified type difference.
+    auto lit = lhs_quals.begin();
+    auto rit = rhs_quals.begin();
+    auto lend = lhs_quals.end();
+    auto rend = rhs_quals.end();
+    while (lit != lend || rit != rend) {
+      if (rit == rend || (lit != lend && *lit < *rit)) {
+        result.AddDiff(QualifiersMessage(*lit, "removed"));
+        ++lit;
+      } else if (lit == lend || (rit != rend && *lit > *rit)) {
+        result.AddDiff(QualifiersMessage(*rit, "added"));
+        ++rit;
+      } else {
+        ++lit;
+        ++rit;
+      }
+    }
+    const auto comp = Compare(l, r, state);
+    result.MaybeAddDiff("underlying type", comp);
+  } else if (l.GetKind() == BTF_KIND_TYPEDEF
+             || r.GetKind() == BTF_KIND_TYPEDEF) {
+    // 3.2 Typedef difference.
+    std::vector<std::string> l_typedefs;
+    std::vector<std::string> r_typedefs;
+    const Type &l_ref = l.ResolveTypedef(l_typedefs);
+    const Type &r_ref = r.ResolveTypedef(r_typedefs);
+    const auto comp = Compare(l_ref, r_ref, state);
+    result.MaybeAddDiff("via typedefs", comp);
+  } else if (typeid(l) != typeid(r)) {
+    // 4. Incomparable.
+    result.equals_ = false;
+  } else {
+    // 5. Actually compare with dynamic type dispatch.
+    result = l.Equals(r, state);
+  }
+
+  // 6. Update result and check for a complete Strongly-Connected Component.
+  state.provisional.insert({comparison, result.details_});
+  auto comparisons = state.scc.Close(handle.value());
+  if (!comparisons.empty()) {
+    // Closed SCC.
+    //
+    // Note that result now incorporates every inequality and difference in the
+    // SCC via the DFS spanning tree.
+    if (result.equals_) {
+      // Same. Record equalities.
+      for (auto &c : comparisons)
+        state.known_equal.insert(c);
+      return {true, {}};
+    } else {
+      // Different. Record diffs.
+      for (auto &c : comparisons) {
+        auto it = state.provisional.find(c);
+        state.outcomes.insert(*it);
+        state.provisional.erase(it);
+      }
+    }
+  }
+
+  // Note that both equals and diff are tentative iff comparison is open.
+  return {result.equals_, {comparison}};
+}
+
+Name Void::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  return Name{"void"};
+}
+
+Name Ptr::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  return GetTypeAtIndex(GetPointeeTypeId()).GetDescription(names).Add(
+      Side::LEFT, Precedence::POINTER, "*");
+}
+
+Name Typedef::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  return Name{GetName()};
+}
+
+Name Qualifier::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  m_assert(false, "should not be called");  // NOLINT
+  return Name{"qualifier"};
+}
+
+Name Integer::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  return Name{GetName()};
+}
+
+Name Array::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  os << '[' << GetNumberOfElements() << ']';
+  return GetTypeAtIndex(GetElementTypeId()).GetDescription(names).Add(
+      Side::RIGHT, Precedence::ARRAY_FUNCTION, os.str());
+}
+
+Name StructUnion::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  os << (GetKind() == BTF_KIND_STRUCT ? "struct" : "union")
+     << ' ' << (GetName().empty() ? "<anon>" : GetName());
+  return Name{os.str()};
+}
+
+Name Enumeration::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  os << "enum " << (GetName().empty() ? "<anon>" : GetName());
+  if (GetEnums().empty())
+    os << "<incomplete>";
+  return Name{os.str()};
+}
+
+Name ForwardDeclaration::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  os << GetFwdKind() << ' ' << GetName() << "<incomplete>";
+  return Name{os.str()};
+}
+
+Name FunctionPrototype::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  std::ostringstream os;
+  os << '(';
+  bool sep = false;
+  for (const auto &p : GetParameters()) {
+    if (sep)
+      os << ", ";
+    else
+      sep = true;
+    const auto &arg_descr = GetTypeAtIndex(p.typeId_).GetDescription(names);
+    if (p.name_.empty())
+      os << arg_descr;
+    else
+      os << arg_descr.Add(Side::LEFT, Precedence::ATOMIC, p.name_);
+  }
+  os << ')';
+  return GetTypeAtIndex(GetReturnTypeId()).GetDescription(names).Add(
+      Side::RIGHT, Precedence::ARRAY_FUNCTION, os.str());
+}
+
+Name Variable::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  return GetTypeAtIndex(GetVarTypeId()).GetDescription(names).Add(
+      Side::LEFT, Precedence::ATOMIC, GetName());
+}
+
+Name Function::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  return GetTypeAtIndex(GetReferredTypeId()).GetDescription(names).Add(
+      Side::LEFT, Precedence::ATOMIC, GetName());
+}
+
+Name DataSection::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  // NOTE: not yet encountered in the wild
+  return Name{"Unimplemented"};
+}
+
+Name ElfSymbol::MakeDescription(NameCache &names) const {
+  return Name{symbol_->get_name()};
+}
+
+Result Void::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  return {};
+}
+
+Result Ptr::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<Ptr>();
+
+  const auto ref_diff = Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(GetPointeeTypeId()),
+                                o.GetTypeAtIndex(o.GetPointeeTypeId()), state);
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("pointed-to type", ref_diff);
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result Typedef::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  m_assert(false, "should not be called");  // NOLINT
+  return {};
+}
+
+Result Qualifier::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  m_assert(false, "should not be called");  // NOLINT
+  return {};
+}
+
+Result Integer::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<Integer>();
+
+  if (isBool() != o.isBool()) {
+    result.AddDiff(isBool() ? "the first one is a boolean"
+                            : "the second one is a boolean");
+  }
+  if (isSigned() != o.isSigned()) {
+    result.AddDiff(isSigned() ? "the first one is signed"
+                              : "the second one is signed");
+  }
+  if (isChar() != o.isChar()) {
+    result.AddDiff(isChar() ? "the first one is a char"
+                            : "the second one is a char");
+  }
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("offset", GetOffset(), o.GetOffset());
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("bit size", GetBitSize(), o.GetBitSize());
+  if (GetBitSize() != GetByteSize() * 8 &&
+      o.GetBitSize() != o.GetByteSize() * 8)
+    result.MaybeAddDiff("byte size", GetByteSize(), o.GetByteSize());
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result Array::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<Array>();
+
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("number of elements",
+                      GetNumberOfElements(), o.GetNumberOfElements());
+  const auto index_type_diff =
+      Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(GetIndexTypeId()),
+              o.GetTypeAtIndex(o.GetIndexTypeId()), state);
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("index type", index_type_diff);
+  const auto element_type_diff =
+      Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(GetElementTypeId()),
+              o.GetTypeAtIndex(o.GetElementTypeId()), state);
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("element type", element_type_diff);
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result StructUnion::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<StructUnion>();
+
+  if (GetKind() != o.GetKind()) {
+    result.AddDiff(GetKind() == BTF_KIND_STRUCT
+                     ? "changed from struct to union"
+                     : "changed from union to struct");
+  }
+
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("byte size", GetByteSize(), o.GetByteSize());
+
+  const auto &members1 = GetMembers();
+  const auto &members2 = o.GetMembers();
+  std::set<std::string> visited_members;
+  for (const auto &m1 : members1) {
+    visited_members.insert(m1.first);
+    auto iter = members2.find(m1.first);
+    if (iter == members2.end()) {
+      std::ostringstream os;
+      os << "member " << std::quoted(m1.first) << " of type";
+      auto diff = Removed(GetTypeAtIndex(m1.second.typeId_), state);
+      result.AddDiff(os.str(), diff);
+    } else {
+      result.MaybeAddDiff([&](std::ostream &os) {
+        os << "member " << std::quoted(m1.first) << " offset";
+      }, m1.second.offset_, iter->second.offset_);
+      result.MaybeAddDiff([&](std::ostream &os) {
+        os << "member " << std::quoted(m1.first) << " bitfield size";
+      }, m1.second.bitfieldSize_, iter->second.bitfieldSize_);
+      const auto sub_diff =
+          Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(m1.second.typeId_),
+                  o.GetTypeAtIndex(iter->second.typeId_), state);
+      result.MaybeAddDiff([&](std::ostream &os) {
+        os << "member " << std::quoted(m1.first) << " type";
+      }, sub_diff);
+    }
+  }
+  for (const auto &m2 : members2) {
+    if (visited_members.find(m2.first) == visited_members.end()) {
+      std::ostringstream os;
+      os << "member " << std::quoted(m2.first) << " of type";
+      auto diff = Added(o.GetTypeAtIndex(m2.second.typeId_), state);
+      result.AddDiff(os.str(), diff);
+    }
+  }
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result Enumeration::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<Enumeration>();
+
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("byte size", GetByteSize(), o.GetByteSize());
+
+  const auto &enums1 = GetEnums();
+  const auto &enums2 = o.GetEnums();
+  std::set<std::string> visited_enums;
+  for (const auto &e1 : enums1) {
+    visited_enums.insert(e1.first);
+    auto iter = enums2.find(e1.first);
+    if (iter == enums2.end()) {
+      std::ostringstream os;
+      os << "enumerator " << std::quoted(e1.first)
+         << " (" << e1.second << ") was removed";
+      result.AddDiff(os.str());
+    } else {
+      result.MaybeAddDiff([&](std::ostream &os) {
+        os << "enumerator " << std::quoted(e1.first) << " value";
+      }, e1.second, iter->second);
+    }
+  }
+  for (const auto &e2 : enums2) {
+    if (visited_enums.find(e2.first) == visited_enums.end()) {
+      std::ostringstream os;
+      os << "enumerator " << std::quoted(e2.first)
+         << " (" << e2.second << ") was added";
+      result.AddDiff(os.str());
+    }
+  }
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result ForwardDeclaration::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<ForwardDeclaration>();
+
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("kind", GetFwdKind(), o.GetFwdKind());
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result Function::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<Function>();
+
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("linkage", GetLinkage(), o.GetLinkage());
+  const auto func_proto_diff =
+      Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(GetReferredTypeId()),
+              o.GetTypeAtIndex(o.GetReferredTypeId()), state);
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("type", func_proto_diff);
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result FunctionPrototype::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<FunctionPrototype>();
+
+  const auto return_type_diff =
+      Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(GetReturnTypeId()),
+              o.GetTypeAtIndex(o.GetReturnTypeId()), state);
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("return type", return_type_diff);
+
+  const auto &parameters1 = GetParameters();
+  const auto &parameters2 = o.GetParameters();
+  size_t min = std::min(parameters1.size(), parameters2.size());
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < min; ++i) {
+    const auto &p1 = parameters1.at(i);
+    const auto &p2 = parameters2.at(i);
+    const auto sub_diff = Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(p1.typeId_),
+                                  o.GetTypeAtIndex(p2.typeId_), state);
+    result.MaybeAddDiff([&](std::ostream &os) {
+      os << "parameter " << i + 1;
+      const auto &n1 = p1.name_;
+      const auto &n2 = p2.name_;
+      if (n1 == n2 && !n1.empty()) {
+        os << " (" << std::quoted(n1) << ")";
+      } else if (n1 != n2) {
+        os << " (";
+        if (!n1.empty()) os << "was " << std::quoted(n1);
+        if (!n1.empty() && !n2.empty()) os << ", ";
+        if (!n2.empty()) os << "now " << std::quoted(n2);
+        os << ")";
+      }
+      os << " type";
+    }, sub_diff);
+  }
+
+  bool added = parameters1.size() < parameters2.size();
+  const auto &parameters = added ? parameters2 : parameters1;
+  for (size_t i = min; i < parameters.size(); ++i) {
+    const auto &parameter = parameters.at(i);
+    std::ostringstream os;
+    os << "parameter " << i + 1;
+    if (!parameter.name_.empty())
+      os << " (" << std::quoted(parameter.name_) << ")";
+    os << " of type";
+    const auto &parameter_type = GetTypeAtIndex(parameter.typeId_);
+    auto diff = added ? Added(parameter_type, state)
+                      : Removed(parameter_type, state);
+    result.AddDiff(os.str(), diff);
+  }
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+// NOTE: not yet encountered in the wild
+Result Variable::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<Variable>();
+
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("linkage", GetLinkage(), o.GetLinkage());
+  const auto var_diff = Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(GetVarTypeId()),
+                                o.GetTypeAtIndex(o.GetVarTypeId()), state);
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("type", var_diff);
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result DataSection::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  result.AddDiff("Unimplemented");
+
+  // NOTE: not yet encountered in the wild
+  m_assert(false, "Unimplemented\n");  // NOLINT
+
+  return result;
+}
+
+Result ElfSymbol::Equals(const Type &other, State &state) const {
+  Result result;
+  const auto &o = other.as<ElfSymbol>();
+  // TODO: compare ELF symbol attributes
+  const auto type_diff = Compare(GetTypeAtIndex(type_id_),
+                                 o.GetTypeAtIndex(o.type_id_), state);
+  result.MaybeAddDiff("type", type_diff);
+  return result;
+}
+
+const Type &Type::ResolveQualifiers(std::set<Kind> &qualifiers) const {
+  if (kind_ == BTF_KIND_ARRAY || kind_ == BTF_KIND_FUNC_PROTO) {
+    // There should be no qualifiers here.
+    qualifiers.clear();
+  }
+  return *this;
+}
+
+const Type &Qualifier::ResolveQualifiers(
+    std::set<Kind> &qualifiers) const {
+  qualifiers.insert(GetKind());
+  return GetTypeAtIndex(GetQualifiedTypeId()).ResolveQualifiers(qualifiers);
+}
+
+const Type &Type::ResolveTypedef(
+    std::vector<std::string> &typedefs) const {
+  return *this;
+}
+
+const Type &Typedef::ResolveTypedef(
+      std::vector<std::string> &typedefs) const {
+  typedefs.push_back(GetName());
+  return GetTypeAtIndex(GetReferredTypeId()).ResolveTypedef(typedefs);
+}
+
+static constexpr std::string_view ANON{"(anon)"};
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Ptr &bp) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bp.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << ANON << "'"
+     << " type_id=" << bp.GetPointeeTypeId()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Typedef &bp) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bp.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << bp.GetName() << "'"
+     << " type_id=" << bp.GetReferredTypeId()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Qualifier &bp) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bp.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << ANON << "'"
+     << " type_id=" << bp.GetQualifiedTypeId()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Integer &bi) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bi.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << bi.GetName() << "'"
+     << " size=" << bi.GetByteSize()
+     << " bits_offset=" << bi.GetOffset()
+     << " nr_bits=" << bi.GetBitSize()
+     << " bool=" << bi.isBool()
+     << " char=" << bi.isChar()
+     << " signed=" << bi.isSigned()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Array &ba) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[ba.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << ANON << "'"
+     << " type_id=" << ba.GetElementTypeId()
+     << " index_type_id=" << ba.GetIndexTypeId()
+     << " nr_elems=" << ba.GetNumberOfElements()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const StructUnion &bsu) {
+  const auto &name = bsu.GetName();
+  os << kRawKindNames[bsu.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << (name.empty() ? ANON : name) << "'"
+     << " size=" << bsu.GetByteSize()
+     << " vlen=" << bsu.GetMembers().size() << '\n';
+  for (const auto &member : bsu.GetMembers()) {
+    os << "\t'" << member.first << '\''
+       << " type_id=" << member.second.typeId_
+       << " bits_offset=" << member.second.offset_;
+    if (member.second.bitfieldSize_)
+      os << " bitfield_size=" << member.second.bitfieldSize_;
+    os << '\n';
+  }
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Enumeration &be) {
+  const auto &name = be.GetName();
+  os << kRawKindNames[be.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << (name.empty() ? ANON : name) << "'"
+     << " size=" << be.GetByteSize()
+     << " vlen=" << be.GetEnums().size()
+     << '\n';
+  for (const auto &e : be.GetEnums()) {
+    os << "\t'" << e.first << "' val=" << e.second << '\n';
+  }
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const ForwardDeclaration &bfd) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bfd.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << bfd.GetName() << "'"
+     << " fwd_kind=" << bfd.GetFwdKind()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Function &bf) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bf.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << bf.GetName() << "'"
+     << " type_id=" << bf.GetReferredTypeId()
+     << " linkage=" << bf.GetLinkage()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const FunctionPrototype &bfp) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bfp.GetKind()]
+     << " '" << ANON << "'"
+     << " ret_type_id=" << bfp.GetReturnTypeId()
+     << " vlen=" << bfp.GetParameters().size()
+     << '\n';
+  for (const auto &param : bfp.GetParameters()) {
+    os << "\t'" << (param.name_.empty() ? ANON : param.name_)
+       << "' type_id=" << param.typeId_ << '\n';
+  }
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const Variable &bv) {
+  // NOTE: The odd comma is to match bpftool dump.
+  os << kRawKindNames[bv.GetKind()]
+     << " type_id=" << bv.GetVarTypeId()
+     << ", linkage=" << bv.GetLinkage()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const DataSection &bds) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bds.GetKind()]
+     << " size=" << bds.GetByteSize()
+     << '\n';
+  for (const auto &secinfo : bds.GetSecinfos()) {
+    os << "\ttype_id=" << secinfo.typeId_
+       << " offset=" << secinfo.offset_
+       << " size=" << secinfo.bytesize_ << '\n';
+  }
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, const ElfSymbol &bes) {
+  os << kRawKindNames[bes.GetKind()];
+  // TODO: report ELF symbol attributes
+  os << " type=" << bes.GetTypeId()
+     << '\n';
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, ForwardDeclarationKind kind) {
+  switch (kind) {
+    case ForwardDeclarationKind::STRUCT:
+      os << "struct";
+      break;
+    case ForwardDeclarationKind::UNION:
+      os << "union";
+      break;
+  }
+  return os;
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, Variable::Linkage linkage) {
+  auto ix = static_cast<size_t>(linkage);
+  return os << (ix < kVarLinkage.size() ? kVarLinkage[ix] : "(unknown)");
+}
+
+std::ostream &operator<<(std::ostream &os, Function::Linkage linkage) {
+  auto ix = static_cast<size_t>(linkage);
+  return os << (ix < kFunLinkage.size() ? kFunLinkage[ix] : "(unknown)");
+}
+
+Structs::Structs(const char *start,
+                 std::unique_ptr<abigail::ir::environment> env,
+                 const abigail::symtab_reader::symtab_sptr tab,
+                 const bool verbose)
+    : env_(std::move(env)),
+      tab_(tab),
+      verbose_(verbose) {
+  header_ = reinterpret_cast<const btf_header *>(start);
+  m_assert(header_->magic == 0xEB9F, "Magic field must be 0xEB9F for BTF");
+
+  type_section_ = reinterpret_cast<const btf_type *>(start + header_->hdr_len +
+                                                     header_->type_off);
+  str_section_ = start + header_->hdr_len + header_->str_off;
+
+  // every btf_type struct in the type section has an implicit type id.
+  // type id 0 is reserved for void type, so it is set to a Void here.
+  // The type section is parsed sequentially and type id is assigned to each
+  // recognized type starting from id 1.
+  types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Void>(types_, 0, 0));
+
+  if (verbose_) {
+    PrintHeader();
+  }
+  BuildTypes();
+  if (verbose_) {
+    PrintStringSection();
+  }
+
+  // NOTE: a whole bunch of Linux kernel symbols appear with duplicate (but not
+  // necessarily identical) BTF type information
+  //
+  // TODO: find a better way of resolving this
+  bad_prefix_1_ = "__arm64_sys_";
+  bad_prefix_2_ = "__arm64_compat_sys_";
+  bad_names_ = {
+    "arch_prctl_spec_ctrl_get",
+    "arch_prctl_spec_ctrl_set",
+    "ioremap_cache",
+    "kvm_arch_set_irq_inatomic",
+    "module_frob_arch_sections",
+    "vsnprintf"
+  };
+}
+
+void Structs::PrintHeader() {
+  std::cout << "BTF header:\n"
+            << "\tmagic " << header_->magic
+            << ", version " << static_cast<int>(header_->version)
+            << ", flags " << static_cast<int>(header_->flags)
+            << ", hdr_len " << header_->hdr_len << "\n"
+            << "\ttype_off " << header_->type_off
+            << ", type_len " << header_->type_len << "\n"
+            << "\tstr_off " << header_->str_off
+            << ", str_len " << header_->str_len << "\n";
+}
+
+// vlen: vector length, the number of struct/union members
+std::map<std::string, Member> Structs::BuildMembers(
+    bool kflag, const btf_member *members, size_t vlen) {
+  std::map<std::string, Member> result;
+  int anonymous = 0;
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < vlen; ++i) {
+    const auto raw_offset = members[i].offset;
+    Member member{
+        .typeId_ = members[i].type,
+        .offset_ = kflag ? BTF_MEMBER_BIT_OFFSET(raw_offset) : raw_offset,
+        .bitfieldSize_ = kflag ? BTF_MEMBER_BITFIELD_SIZE(raw_offset) : 0};
+    std::string name = std::string(GetName(members[i].name_off));
+    if (name.empty()) {
+      name = "anon member #" + std::to_string(anonymous);
+      ++anonymous;
+    }
+    result.emplace(name, member);
+  }
+  return result;
+}
+
+// vlen: vector length, the number of enum values
+std::map<std::string, int> Structs::BuildEnums(const struct btf_enum *enums,
+                                               size_t vlen) {
+  std::map<std::string, int> result;
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < vlen; ++i) {
+    result.emplace(std::string(GetName(enums[i].name_off)), enums[i].val);
+  }
+  return result;
+}
+
+// vlen: vector length, the number of parameters
+std::vector<Parameter> Structs::BuildParams(const struct btf_param *params,
+                                            size_t vlen) {
+  std::vector<Parameter> result;
+  result.reserve(vlen);
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < vlen; ++i) {
+    Parameter parameter{
+        .name_ = std::string(GetName(params[i].name_off)),
+        .typeId_ = params[i].type};
+    result.push_back(parameter);
+  }
+  return result;
+}
+
+// vlen: vector length, the number of variables
+std::vector<Secinfo> Structs::BuildDatasec(const btf_type *type,
+                                           size_t vlen) {
+  std::vector<Secinfo> result;
+  result.reserve(vlen);
+  const auto *secinfos = reinterpret_cast<const btf_var_secinfo *>(type + 1);
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < vlen; ++i) {
+    Secinfo secinfo{.typeId_ = secinfos[i].type,
+                    .offset_ = secinfos[i].offset,
+                    .bytesize_ = secinfos[i].size};
+    result.push_back(secinfo);
+  }
+  return result;
+}
+
+void Structs::BuildTypes() {
+  m_assert(!(header_->type_off & (sizeof(uint32_t) - 1)), "Unaligned type_off");
+  if (header_->type_len == 0) {
+    std::cerr << "No types found";
+    return;
+  }
+  if (verbose_) {
+    std::cout << "Type section:\n";
+  }
+
+  const char *curr = reinterpret_cast<const char *>(type_section_);
+  const char *end = curr + header_->type_len;
+  uint32_t index = 1;
+  while (curr < end) {
+    const btf_type *t = reinterpret_cast<const btf_type *>(curr);
+    int type_size = BuildOneType(t, index);
+    m_assert(type_size > 0, "Could not identify BTF type");
+    curr += type_size;
+    ++index;
+  }
+
+  BuildElfSymbols();
+}
+
+int Structs::BuildOneType(const btf_type *t, uint32_t index) {
+  const auto kind = BTF_INFO_KIND(t->info);
+  const auto vlen = BTF_INFO_VLEN(t->info);
+  // Data following the btf_type struct.
+  const void *data = reinterpret_cast<const void *>(t + 1);
+  m_assert(kind >= 0 && kind < NR_BTF_KINDS, "Unknown BTF kind");
+
+  if (verbose_) std::cout << '[' << index << "] ";
+  int type_size = sizeof(struct btf_type);
+  switch (kind) {
+    case BTF_KIND_INT: {
+      const auto bits = *reinterpret_cast<const uint32_t *>(data);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Integer>(
+          types_, index, GetName(t->name_off), kind,
+          BTF_INT_ENCODING(bits), BTF_INT_OFFSET(bits), BTF_INT_BITS(bits),
+          t->size));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Integer>();
+      }
+      type_size += sizeof(uint32_t);
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_PTR: {
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Ptr>(types_, index, kind, t->type));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Ptr>();
+      }
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_TYPEDEF: {
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Typedef>(
+          types_, index, GetName(t->name_off), kind, t->type));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Typedef>();
+      }
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_VOLATILE:
+    case BTF_KIND_CONST:
+    case BTF_KIND_RESTRICT: {
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Qualifier>(
+          types_, index, kind, t->type));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Qualifier>();
+      }
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_ARRAY: {
+      const auto *array = reinterpret_cast<const struct btf_array *>(data);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Array>(
+          types_, index, kind, array->type, array->index_type, array->nelems));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Array>();
+      }
+      type_size += sizeof(struct btf_array);
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_STRUCT:
+    case BTF_KIND_UNION: {
+      const bool kflag = BTF_INFO_KFLAG(t->info);
+      const auto *btf_members = reinterpret_cast<const btf_member *>(data);
+      const auto members = BuildMembers(kflag, btf_members, vlen);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<StructUnion>(
+          types_, index, GetName(t->name_off), kind, t->size, members));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<StructUnion>();
+      }
+      type_size += vlen * sizeof(struct btf_member);
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_ENUM: {
+      const auto *enums = reinterpret_cast<const struct btf_enum *>(data);
+      std::map<std::string, int> enumerators = BuildEnums(enums, vlen);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Enumeration>(
+          types_, index, GetName(t->name_off), kind,
+          t->size, enumerators));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Enumeration>();
+      }
+      type_size += vlen * sizeof(struct btf_enum);
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_FWD: {
+      const bool kflag = BTF_INFO_KFLAG(t->info);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<ForwardDeclaration>(
+          types_, index, GetName(t->name_off), kind, kflag));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<ForwardDeclaration>();
+      }
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_FUNC: {
+      const auto name = GetName(t->name_off);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Function>(
+          types_, index, name, kind, t->type,
+          Function::Linkage(vlen)));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Function>();
+      }
+      bool inserted = btf_symbol_types_.insert({name, t->type}).second;
+      if (!inserted) {
+        // NOTE: duplicate BTF symbols could be considered a bug in pahole
+        //
+        // TODO: remove these checks once resolved
+        bool known = !name.compare(0, bad_prefix_1_.size(), bad_prefix_1_) ||
+                     !name.compare(0, bad_prefix_2_.size(), bad_prefix_2_) ||
+                     std::find(bad_names_.begin(), bad_names_.end(), name) !=
+                     bad_names_.end();
+        m_assert(known, "Insertion failed, duplicate found in symbol map");
+        (void)known;
+      }
+      btf_symbols_.insert({name, types_.back().get()});
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_FUNC_PROTO: {
+      const auto *params = reinterpret_cast<const btf_param *>(data);
+      std::vector<Parameter> parameters = BuildParams(params, vlen);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<FunctionPrototype>(
+          types_, index, kind, t->type, parameters));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<FunctionPrototype>();
+      }
+      type_size += vlen * sizeof(struct btf_param);
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_VAR: {
+      // NOTE: not yet encountered in the wild
+      const auto *variable = reinterpret_cast<const struct btf_var *>(data);
+      const auto name = GetName(t->name_off);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<Variable>(
+          types_, index, name, kind, t->type,
+          Variable::Linkage(variable->linkage)));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<Variable>();
+      }
+
+      bool inserted = btf_symbol_types_.insert({name, t->type}).second;
+      m_assert(inserted, "Insertion failed, duplicate found in symbol map");
+      (void)inserted;
+      btf_symbols_.insert({name, types_.back().get()});
+
+      type_size += sizeof(struct btf_var);
+      break;
+    }
+    case BTF_KIND_DATASEC: {
+      std::vector<Secinfo> secinfos = BuildDatasec(t, vlen);
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<DataSection>(
+          types_, index, kind, t->size, secinfos));
+      if (verbose_) {
+        std::cout << types_.back()->as<DataSection>();
+      }
+      type_size += vlen * sizeof(struct btf_var_secinfo);
+    }
+  }
+  return type_size;
+}
+
+std::string Structs::GetName(uint32_t name_off) {
+  m_assert(name_off < header_->str_len,
+           "The name offset exceeds the section length");
+  const char *section_end = str_section_ + header_->str_len;
+  const char *name_begin = str_section_ + name_off;
+  const char *name_end = std::find(name_begin, section_end, '\0');
+  m_assert(name_end < section_end,
+           "The name continues past the string section limit");
+  return {name_begin, static_cast<size_t>(name_end - name_begin)};
+}
+
+void Structs::PrintStringSection() {
+  std::cout << "String section:\n";
+  const char *curr = str_section_;
+  const char *limit = str_section_ + header_->str_len;
+  while (curr < limit) {
+    const char *pos = std::find(curr, limit, '\0');
+    m_assert(pos < limit, "Error reading the string section");
+    std::cout << ' ' << curr;
+    curr = pos + 1;
+  }
+  std::cout << '\n';
+}
+
+void Structs::BuildElfSymbols() {
+  const auto filter = [&]() {
+    auto filter = tab_->make_filter();
+    filter.set_public_symbols();
+    return filter;
+  }();
+  for (const auto &symbol :
+           abigail::symtab_reader::filtered_symtab(*tab_, filter)) {
+    const auto &symbol_name = symbol->get_name();
+    const auto &main_symbol_name = symbol->get_main_symbol()->get_name();
+    auto it = btf_symbol_types_.find(main_symbol_name);
+    if (it == btf_symbol_types_.end()) {
+      // missing BTF information is tracked explicitly
+      std::cerr << "ELF symbol " << std::quoted(symbol_name);
+      if (symbol_name != main_symbol_name)
+        std::cerr << " (aliased to " << std::quoted(main_symbol_name) << ')';
+      std::cerr << " BTF info missing\n";
+      types_.push_back(nullptr);
+    } else {
+      uint32_t type_id = it->second;
+      types_.push_back(std::make_unique<ElfSymbol>(types_, symbol, type_id));
+    }
+    elf_symbols_.emplace(symbol_name, types_.back().get());
+  }
+}
+
+class ElfHandle {
+ public:
+  ElfHandle(const std::string &path) : dwfl_(nullptr, dwfl_end) {
+    string name;
+    tools_utils::base_name(path, name);
+
+    elf_version(EV_CURRENT);
+
+    dwfl_ = std::unique_ptr<Dwfl, decltype(&dwfl_end)>(
+        dwfl_begin(&offline_callbacks_), dwfl_end);
+    auto dwfl_module = dwfl_report_offline(dwfl_.get(), name.c_str(),
+                                           path.c_str(), -1);
+    GElf_Addr bias;
+    elf_handle_ = dwfl_module_getelf(dwfl_module, &bias);
+  }
+
+  // Conversion operator to act as a drop-in replacement for Elf*
+  operator Elf *() const { return elf_handle_; }
+
+  Elf *get() const { return elf_handle_; }
+
+ private:
+  // Dwfl owns all our data, hence only keep track of this
+  std::unique_ptr<Dwfl, decltype(&dwfl_end)> dwfl_;
+  Elf *elf_handle_;
+
+  Dwfl_Callbacks offline_callbacks_;
+};
+
+Structs ReadFile(const std::string &path, bool verbose) {
+  using abigail::symtab_reader::symtab;
+
+  ElfHandle elf(path);
+  m_assert(elf.get() != nullptr, "Could not get elf handle from file.");
+
+  Elf_Scn *btf_section =
+      abigail::elf_helpers::find_section(elf, ".BTF", SHT_PROGBITS);
+  m_assert(btf_section != nullptr,
+           "The given file does not have a BTF section");
+  Elf_Data *elf_data = elf_rawdata(btf_section, 0);
+  m_assert(elf_data != nullptr, "The BTF section is invalid");
+  const char *btf_start = static_cast<char *>(elf_data->d_buf);
+
+  auto env = std::make_unique<abigail::ir::environment>();
+  auto tab = symtab::load(elf, env.get());
+
+  return Structs(btf_start, std::move(env), std::move(tab), verbose);
+}
+
+}  // end namespace btf
+}  // end namespace abigail