[1/2] gas: aarch64: add experimental support for SCFI

Message ID 20240411074407.1429624-2-indu.bhagat@oracle.com
State New
Headers
Series Add SCFI support for aarch64 |

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Context Check Description
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Commit Message

Indu Bhagat April 11, 2024, 7:44 a.m. UTC
  For synthesizing CFI (SCFI) for hand-written asm, the SCFI machinery in
GAS works on the generic GAS insns (ginsns).  This patch adds support in
the aarch64 backend to create ginsns for a subset of the supported
machine instructions.  The subset includes the minimal necessary
instructions to ensure SCFI correctness:

  - Any potential register saves and unsaves.  Hence, process
    instructions belonging to a variety of iclasses involving str, ldr,
    stp, ldp.
  - Any change of flow instructions.  This includes all conditional and
    unconditional branches, call (bl, blr, etc.) and return.
  - Most importantly, any instruction that could affect the two registers of
    interest: REG_SP, REG_FP.  This set includes all pre-indexed and
    post-indexed memory operations, with writeback, on the stack.  This
    set must also include other instructions (e.g., arithmetic insns) where
    the destination register is one of the afore-mentioned registers.

Apart from creating ginsn, another key responsibility of the backend is
to make sure there are safeguards in place to detect and alert if an
instruction of interest may have been skipped.  This is done via
aarch64_ginsn_unhandled () (similar to the x86 backend).  This function
, hence, is also intended to alert when future ISA changes may otherwise
render SCFI results incorrect, because of missing ginsns for the newly
added machine instructions.

The current SCFI machinery does not currently synthesize the
PAC-related, aarch64-specific CFI directives: .cfi_b_key_frame.  The
support for this is planned for near future.

SCFI is enabled for ELF targets only.

gas/
	* config/tc-aarch64.c (aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p): New
	definition.
	(ginsn_dw2_regnum): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_addsub_reg): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_ldstp): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_ldstr): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_jump): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_jump_cond): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_mov): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_safe_to_skip_p): Likewise.
	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE): Likewise.
	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG): Likewise.
	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG): Likewise.
	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP): Likewise.
	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_UNEXPECTED): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_unhandled): Likewise.
	(aarch64_ginsn_new): Likewise.
	(md_assemble): Invoke aarch64_ginsn_new.
	* gas/config/tc-aarch64.h (TARGET_USE_GINSN): Define for SCFI
	enablement.
	(TARGET_USE_SCFI): Likewise.
	(SCFI_MAX_REG_ID): New definition.
	(REG_FP): Likewise.
	(REG_LR): Likewise.
	(REG_SP): Likewise.
	(SCFI_INIT_CFA_OFFSET): Likewise.
	(SCFI_CALLEE_SAVED_REG_P): Likewise.
	(aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p): New declaration.
---
 gas/config/tc-aarch64.c | 744 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 gas/config/tc-aarch64.h |  20 ++
 2 files changed, 764 insertions(+)
  

Comments

Richard Earnshaw (lists) May 21, 2024, 12:34 p.m. UTC | #1
On 11/04/2024 08:44, Indu Bhagat wrote:
> For synthesizing CFI (SCFI) for hand-written asm, the SCFI machinery in
> GAS works on the generic GAS insns (ginsns).  This patch adds support in
> the aarch64 backend to create ginsns for a subset of the supported
> machine instructions.  The subset includes the minimal necessary
> instructions to ensure SCFI correctness:
> 
>   - Any potential register saves and unsaves.  Hence, process
>     instructions belonging to a variety of iclasses involving str, ldr,
>     stp, ldp.
>   - Any change of flow instructions.  This includes all conditional and
>     unconditional branches, call (bl, blr, etc.) and return.
>   - Most importantly, any instruction that could affect the two registers of
>     interest: REG_SP, REG_FP.  This set includes all pre-indexed and
>     post-indexed memory operations, with writeback, on the stack.  This
>     set must also include other instructions (e.g., arithmetic insns) where
>     the destination register is one of the afore-mentioned registers.
> 
> Apart from creating ginsn, another key responsibility of the backend is
> to make sure there are safeguards in place to detect and alert if an
> instruction of interest may have been skipped.  This is done via
> aarch64_ginsn_unhandled () (similar to the x86 backend).  This function
> , hence, is also intended to alert when future ISA changes may otherwise
> render SCFI results incorrect, because of missing ginsns for the newly
> added machine instructions.
> 
> The current SCFI machinery does not currently synthesize the
> PAC-related, aarch64-specific CFI directives: .cfi_b_key_frame.  The
> support for this is planned for near future.
> 
> SCFI is enabled for ELF targets only.
> 
> gas/
> 	* config/tc-aarch64.c (aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p): New
> 	definition.
> 	(ginsn_dw2_regnum): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_addsub_reg): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_ldstp): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_ldstr): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_jump): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_jump_cond): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_mov): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_safe_to_skip_p): Likewise.
> 	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE): Likewise.
> 	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG): Likewise.
> 	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG): Likewise.
> 	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP): Likewise.
> 	(AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_UNEXPECTED): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_unhandled): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_ginsn_new): Likewise.
> 	(md_assemble): Invoke aarch64_ginsn_new.
> 	* gas/config/tc-aarch64.h (TARGET_USE_GINSN): Define for SCFI
> 	enablement.
> 	(TARGET_USE_SCFI): Likewise.
> 	(SCFI_MAX_REG_ID): New definition.
> 	(REG_FP): Likewise.
> 	(REG_LR): Likewise.
> 	(REG_SP): Likewise.
> 	(SCFI_INIT_CFA_OFFSET): Likewise.
> 	(SCFI_CALLEE_SAVED_REG_P): Likewise.
> 	(aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p): New declaration.
> ---
>  gas/config/tc-aarch64.c | 744 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
>  gas/config/tc-aarch64.h |  20 ++
>  2 files changed, 764 insertions(+)

Hi Indu,

Firstly, apologies for the delay replying.  I'm trying to work through a large backlog of arm/aarch64 patches as quickly as I can.

I haven't done an in-depth review of all the code here, but on a quick scan my major concern is the excessive use of bit-pattern matches on the opcode field.  This makes the code very unweildy and thus likely very difficult to maintain going forwards.  I think we can do a lot better than that, but it probably requires adding a bit more information to each of the relevant insn definitions.

The first thing to note is that we already have the iclass field which tells us the general shape and purpose of the insn and testing that is far preferable to trying to decode the opcodes.  But it's clear that isn't sufficient in that it doesn't tell us whether an instruction is a load or a store.  That could be fixed though by adding some additional information in the flags field of the insn.  I'd suggest something along the lines of the following:

Firstly, define a 4-bit sub-field of the flags component in include/opcode/aarch64.h (the next free bit is 36).

#define F_SUBCLASS (0xfULL << 36)

we can then define some subclass values, eg for loads and stores we could have 
F_LDST_LOAD (1ULL << 36)
F_LDST_STORE (2ULL << 36)
F_LDST_SWAP (3ULL << 36) // a load followed by a store using the same address

The above would be valid for any iclass that represents a load or a store operation

We can also add some subclass values for arithmetic operations as well (add/sub)
F_ARITH_ADD (1ULL << 36)
F_ARITH_SUB (2ULL << 36)
etc.  Note that these overlap the definitions for the load/store subclass, so we have to be careful which iclass the insn is in when interpreting these values, but we can save a lot of flag space this way.  We can do something similar as well for the various jump/call insns.

I think once we have this it should be possible to replace the big switch on opcode->opcode in aarch64_ginsn_new() with a switch on the iclass, plus, where needed, a further test of the subclass we've just added.

My other suggestion at this time is that rather than adding this to tc-aarch64.c we create a new file for the scfi support - it doesn't look to me as though this code has a high dependency on existing private functions within tc-aarch64.c, so keeping things more modular will help with long-term maintenance.  See 'bfin' in gas/configure.ac for an example of how to do this.

R.

> 
> diff --git a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c
> index 6ad4fae8b0e..81b95919969 100644
> --- a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c
> +++ b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c
> @@ -37,6 +37,7 @@
>  
>  #include "dw2gencfi.h"
>  #include "dwarf2dbg.h"
> +#include "scfi.h"
>  
>  #define streq(a, b)	      (strcmp (a, b) == 0)
>  
> @@ -6062,6 +6063,739 @@ get_aarch64_insn (char *buf)
>    return result;
>  }
>  
> +#ifdef OBJ_ELF
> +
> +/* DWARF register number for R1.  Used as dummy value when WZR.  */
> +#define GINSN_DW2_REGNUM_R1_DUMMY 1
> +
> +/* Return whether the given register number is a callee-saved register for SCFI
> +   purposes.  SCFI always tracks SP, FP and LR additionally.  */
> +
> +bool
> +aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (uint32_t dw2reg_num)
> +{
> +  if (dw2reg_num == REG_SP /* x31.  */
> +      || dw2reg_num == REG_FP /* x29.  */
> +      || dw2reg_num == REG_LR /* x30.  */
> +      || (dw2reg_num >= 19 && dw2reg_num <= 28) /* x19 - x28.  */)
> +    return true;
> +
> +  return false;
> +}
> +
> +/* Get the DWARF register number for the given OPND.
> +   Whether 31 is used to encode WZR or SP is specified via SP_ALLOWED_P.
> +
> +   The caller must decide the value of SP_ALLOWED_P based on the instruction
> +   encoding.  */
> +
> +static uint32_t
> +ginsn_dw2_regnum (aarch64_opnd_info *opnd, bool sp_allowed_p)
> +{
> +  /* Use a dummy register value in case of WZR, else this will be an
> +     incorrect dependency on REG_SP.  */
> +  if (!sp_allowed_p && opnd->reg.regno == REG_SP)
> +    return GINSN_DW2_REGNUM_R1_DUMMY;
> +  /* For registers of our interest (callee-saved regs, SP, FP, LR),
> +     DWARF register number is the same as AArch64 register number.  */
> +  return opnd->reg.regno;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate ginsn for addsub instructions with immediate opnd.  */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
> +{
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  bool add_p, sub_p;
> +  int32_t src_imm = 0;
> +  uint32_t dst_reg, opnd_reg;
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *dst, *opnd;
> +  ginsnS *(*ginsn_func) (const symbolS *, bool,
> +			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
> +			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
> +			 enum ginsn_dst_type, unsigned int, offsetT);
> +
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +
> +  add_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x11000000);
> +  sub_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x51000000);
> +  gas_assert (add_p || sub_p);
> +  ginsn_func = add_p ? ginsn_new_add : ginsn_new_sub;
> +
> +  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 3);
> +  dst = &base->operands[0];
> +  opnd = &base->operands[1];
> +
> +  dst_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dst, true);
> +
> +  if (aarch64_gas_internal_fixup_p () && inst.reloc.exp.X_op == O_constant)
> +    src_imm = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_number;
> +  /* For any other relocation type, e.g., in add reg, reg, symbol, skip now and
> +     handle via aarch64_ginsn_unhandled () code path.  */
> +  else if (inst.reloc.type != BFD_RELOC_UNUSED)
> +    return ginsn;
> +  /* FIXME - verify the understanding and remove assert.  */
> +  else
> +    gas_assert (0);
> +
> +  opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd, true);
> +
> +  ginsn = ginsn_func (insn_end_sym, true,
> +		      GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg, 0,
> +		      GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0, src_imm,
> +		      GINSN_DST_REG, dst_reg, 0);
> +  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
> +
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate ginsn for addsub instructions with reg opnd.  */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_addsub_reg (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
> +{
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  bool add_p, sub_p;
> +  uint32_t dst_reg, src1_reg, src2_reg;
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *dst, *src1, *src2;
> +  ginsnS *(*ginsn_func) (const symbolS *, bool,
> +			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
> +			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
> +			 enum ginsn_dst_type, unsigned int, offsetT);
> +
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +
> +  add_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x0b200000);
> +  sub_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x4b200000);
> +  gas_assert (add_p || sub_p);
> +  ginsn_func = add_p ? ginsn_new_add : ginsn_new_sub;
> +
> +  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 3);
> +  dst = &base->operands[0];
> +  src1 = &base->operands[1];
> +  src2 = &base->operands[2];
> +
> +  dst_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dst, true);
> +  src1_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (src1, true);
> +  src2_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (src2, false);
> +
> +  ginsn = ginsn_func (insn_end_sym, true,
> +		      GINSN_SRC_REG, src1_reg, 0,
> +		      GINSN_SRC_REG, src2_reg, 0,
> +		      GINSN_DST_REG, dst_reg, 0);
> +  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
> +
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate ginsn for the load pair and store pair instructions.  */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_ldstp (const symbolS *insn_end_sym, bool store_p)
> +{
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  ginsnS *ginsn_ind = NULL;
> +  ginsnS *ginsn_mem1 = NULL;
> +  ginsnS *ginsn_mem2 = NULL;
> +  uint32_t opnd_reg, addr_reg;
> +  int32_t offset, mem_offset;
> +  unsigned int width = 8;
> +
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *opnd1, *opnd2, *addr;
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +
> +  /* This function is for handling ldp / stp ops only.  */
> +  gas_assert (opcode->iclass == ldstpair_indexed
> +	      || opcode->iclass == ldstpair_off);
> +  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 3);
> +
> +  opnd1 = &base->operands[0];
> +  opnd2 = &base->operands[1];
> +  addr = &base->operands[2];
> +
> +  addr_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (addr, true);
> +  gas_assert (!addr->addr.offset.is_reg);
> +  mem_offset = addr->addr.offset.imm;
> +  if (opnd1->qualifier == AARCH64_OPND_QLF_W)
> +    width = 4;
> +
> +  /* Handle address calculation.  */
> +  if ((addr->addr.preind || addr->addr.postind) && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    {
> +      /* Pre-indexed store, e.g., stp x29, x30, [sp, -128]!
> +	 Pre-indexed addressing is like offset addressing, except that
> +	 the base pointer is updated as a result of the instruction.
> +
> +	 Post-indexed store, e.g., stp     x29, x30, [sp],128
> +	 Post-index addressing is useful for popping off the stack.  The
> +	 instruction loads the value from the location pointed at by the stack
> +	 pointer, and then moves the stack pointer on to the next full location
> +	 in the stack.  */
> +      ginsn_ind = ginsn_new_add (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				 GINSN_SRC_REG, addr_reg, 0,
> +				 GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0, mem_offset,
> +				 GINSN_DST_REG, addr_reg, 0);
> +      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_ind);
> +    }
> +
> +  /* Save / restore of floating point registers is not of interest for SCFI.
> +     However, the address processing component may have updated the stack
> +     pointer.  At least, emit that ginsn and return.
> +     TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI.  */
> +  if (aarch64_get_operand_class (opnd1->type) != AARCH64_OPND_CLASS_INT_REG)
> +    return ginsn_ind;
> +
> +  /* With post-index addressing, the value is loaded from the
> +     address in the base pointer, and then the pointer is updated.
> +     With pre-index addressing, the addr computation has already
> +     been explicitly done.  */
> +  offset = mem_offset;
> +  if ((addr->addr.postind || addr->addr.preind) && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    offset = 0;
> +
> +  opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd1, false);
> +  if (store_p)
> +    {
> +      ginsn_mem1 = ginsn_new_store (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				    GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg,
> +				    GINSN_DST_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset);
> +      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem1);
> +
> +      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd2, false);
> +      ginsn_mem2 = ginsn_new_store (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				    GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg,
> +				    GINSN_DST_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset + width);
> +      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem2);
> +    }
> +  else
> +    {
> +      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd1, false);
> +      ginsn_mem1 = ginsn_new_load (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				   GINSN_SRC_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset,
> +				   GINSN_DST_REG, opnd_reg);
> +      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem1);
> +
> +      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd2, false);
> +      ginsn_mem2 = ginsn_new_load (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				   GINSN_SRC_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset + width,
> +				   GINSN_DST_REG, opnd_reg);
> +      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem2);
> +    }
> +
> +  /* Link the list of ginsns created.  */
> +  if (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_ind, ginsn_mem1));
> +
> +  gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_mem1, ginsn_mem2));
> +
> +  if (addr->addr.postind && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_mem2, ginsn_ind));
> +
> +  /* Make note of the first instruction in the list.  */
> +  ginsn = (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback) ? ginsn_ind : ginsn_mem1;
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate ginsn for load and store instructions.  */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_ldstr (const symbolS *insn_end_sym, bool store_p)
> +{
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  ginsnS *ginsn_ind = NULL;
> +  ginsnS *ginsn_mem = NULL;
> +  uint32_t opnd_reg, addr_reg;
> +  int32_t offset = 0;
> +  int32_t mem_offset = 0;
> +
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *opnd1, *addr;
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +
> +  /* This function is for handling ldr, str ops only.  */
> +  gas_assert (opcode->iclass == ldst_imm9 || opcode->iclass == ldst_pos);
> +  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 2);
> +
> +  opnd1 = &base->operands[0];
> +  addr = &base->operands[1];
> +
> +  addr_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (addr, true);
> +
> +  /* STR <Xt>, [<Xn|SP>, (<Wm>|<Xm>){, <extend> {<amount>}}].
> +     LDR <Xt>, [<Xn|SP>], #<simm>.  */
> +  opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd1, false);
> +
> +  /* If opnd_reg is WZR, ignore this (OK to do for SCFI).  Note, this is a
> +     potential case of TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI.  */
> +  if (opnd_reg == REG_SP)
> +    return ginsn;
> +
> +  if (aarch64_gas_internal_fixup_p () && inst.reloc.exp.X_op == O_constant)
> +    mem_offset = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_number;
> +  else
> +    {
> +      gas_assert (!addr->addr.offset.is_reg);
> +      mem_offset = addr->addr.offset.imm;
> +    }
> +
> +  /* Handle address calculation.  */
> +  if ((addr->addr.preind || addr->addr.postind) && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    {
> +      ginsn_ind = ginsn_new_add (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				 GINSN_SRC_REG, addr_reg, 0,
> +				 GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0, mem_offset,
> +				 GINSN_DST_REG, addr_reg, 0);
> +      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_ind);
> +    }
> +
> +  /* Save / restore of floating point registers is not of interest for SCFI.
> +     However, the address processing component may have updated the stack
> +     pointer.  At least, emit that ginsn and return.
> +     TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI.  */
> +  if (aarch64_get_operand_class (opnd1->type) != AARCH64_OPND_CLASS_INT_REG)
> +    return ginsn_ind;
> +
> +  /* With post-index addressing, the value is loaded from the
> +     address in the base pointer, and then the pointer is updated.
> +     With pre-index addressing, the addr computation has already
> +     been explicitly done.  */
> +  offset = mem_offset;
> +  if ((addr->addr.postind || addr->addr.preind) && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    offset = 0;
> +
> +  if (store_p)
> +    ginsn_mem = ginsn_new_store (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				 GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg,
> +				 GINSN_DST_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset);
> +  else
> +    ginsn_mem = ginsn_new_load (insn_end_sym, false,
> +				GINSN_SRC_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset,
> +				GINSN_DST_REG, opnd_reg);
> +  ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem);
> +
> +  if (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_ind, ginsn_mem));
> +  else if (addr->addr.postind && addr->addr.writeback)
> +    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_mem, ginsn_ind));
> +
> +  /* Make note of the first instruction in the list.  */
> +  ginsn = (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback) ? ginsn_ind : ginsn_mem;
> +
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate ginsn for unconditional branch instructions.  */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_jump (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
> +{
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  const symbolS *src_symbol = NULL;
> +  enum ginsn_src_type src_type = GINSN_SRC_UNKNOWN;
> +  uint32_t src_value = 0;
> +  bool call_p = false;
> +
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +
> +  if (opcode->iclass == branch_imm)
> +    {
> +      /* opcode 0x14000000 or 0x94000000.  */
> +      gas_assert (inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_CALL26
> +		  || inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_JUMP26);
> +      src_symbol = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_symbol;
> +      src_type = GINSN_SRC_SYMBOL;
> +    }
> +  else if (opcode->opcode == 0xd61f0000 || opcode->opcode == 0xd63f0000)
> +    {
> +      src_type = GINSN_SRC_REG;
> +      src_value = ginsn_dw2_regnum (&base->operands[0], false);
> +    }
> +
> +  if (opcode->opcode == 0x94000000 || opcode->opcode == 0xd63f0000)
> +    call_p = true;
> +
> +  gas_assert (src_type != GINSN_SRC_UNKNOWN);
> +
> +  if (call_p)
> +    ginsn = ginsn_new_call (insn_end_sym, true,
> +			   src_type, src_value, src_symbol);
> +  else
> +    ginsn = ginsn_new_jump (insn_end_sym, true,
> +			    src_type, src_value, src_symbol);
> +  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
> +
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate ginsn for conditional branch instructions.  */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_jump_cond (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
> +{
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  const symbolS *src_symbol;
> +  enum ginsn_src_type src_type = GINSN_SRC_SYMBOL;
> +
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +  aarch64_insn opc = opcode->opcode;
> +
> +  gas_assert ((opc == 0x34000000 || opc == 0x35000000
> +	       || opc == 0x36000000 || opc == 0x37000000)
> +	      || (opc >= 0x54000000 && opc <= 0x5400000d));
> +
> +  gas_assert (inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_BRANCH19
> +	      || inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_TSTBR14);
> +  src_symbol = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_symbol;
> +
> +  ginsn = ginsn_new_jump_cond (insn_end_sym, true,
> +			       src_type, 0, src_symbol);
> +  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
> +
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate ginsn for mov instructions.  */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_mov (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
> +{
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  uint32_t src_reg = 0, dst_reg;
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *src, *dst;
> +  offsetT src_imm = 0;
> +  enum ginsn_src_type src_type;
> +
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +
> +  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 2);
> +
> +  dst = &base->operands[0];
> +  src = &base->operands[1];
> +
> +  dst_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dst, true);
> +
> +  if (src->type == AARCH64_OPND_IMM_MOV
> +      && aarch64_gas_internal_fixup_p () && inst.reloc.exp.X_op == O_constant)
> +    {
> +      src_imm = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_number;
> +      src_type = GINSN_SRC_IMM;
> +    }
> +  else
> +    {
> +      /* mov   x27, sp.  */
> +      src_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (src, true);
> +      src_type = GINSN_SRC_REG;
> +    }
> +
> +  ginsn = ginsn_new_mov (insn_end_sym, false,
> +			 src_type, src_reg, src_imm,
> +			 GINSN_DST_REG, dst_reg, 0);
> +  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
> +
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +/* Check if an instruction is whitelisted.
> +
> +   An instruction is a candidate for whitelisting if not generating ginsn
> +   for it, does not affect SCFI correctness.  */
> +
> +static bool
> +aarch64_ginsn_safe_to_skip_p (void)
> +{
> +  bool skip_p = false;
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *opnd = NULL;
> +  uint32_t opnd_reg;
> +
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +  int num_opnds = aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode);
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *addr = &base->operands[num_opnds - 1];
> +
> +  /* It is not expected to have reg offset based ld/st ops to be used
> +     for reg save and restore operations.  Warn the user though.  */
> +  if (opcode->iclass == ldst_regoff)
> +    {
> +      opnd = &base->operands[0];
> +      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd, false);
> +      if (aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (opnd_reg))
> +	{
> +	  skip_p = true;
> +	  as_warn ("SCFI: ignored probable save/restore op with reg offset");
> +	}
> +    }
> +
> +  switch (opcode->opcode)
> +    {
> +      /* Load/store FP register pair (offset) are safe to skip even if the base
> +	 register is SP-based because there cannot be writeback with pre- or
> +	 post- indexing.  */
> +    case 0x2d000000: /* ldstpair_off.  Store FP register pair (offset).  */
> +    case 0x2d400000: /* ldstpair_off.  Load FP register pair (offset).  */
> +    case 0x3d000000: /* ldst_pos.  Store FP register (unsigned immediate).  */
> +    case 0x3d400000: /* ldst_pos.  Load FP register (unsigned immediate).  */
> +      /* There cannot be a writeback here.  Confirm? FIXME.
> +	if not true, need to generate addr gen opcodes at the least.  */
> +      gas_assert (!addr->addr.writeback);
> +      skip_p = true;
> +      break;
> +    default:
> +      break;
> +    }
> +
> +  return skip_p;
> +}
> +
> +#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE        0
> +#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG    1
> +#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG         2
> +#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP     3
> +#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_UNEXPECTED  4
> +
> +/* Check the input insn for its impact on the correctness of the synthesized
> +   CFI.  Returns an error code to the caller.  */
> +
> +static int
> +aarch64_ginsn_unhandled (void)
> +{
> +  int err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE;
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *dest = &base->operands[0];
> +  int num_opnds = aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode);
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *addr;
> +  unsigned int dw2_regnum;
> +  uint32_t addr_reg;
> +  bool sp_allowed_p = false;
> +
> +  /* All change of flow instructions are important for SCFI.  */
> +  if (opcode->iclass == condbranch
> +      || opcode->iclass == compbranch
> +      || opcode->iclass == testbranch
> +      || opcode->iclass == branch_imm
> +      || opcode->iclass == branch_reg)
> +    err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG;
> +  /* Also, any memory instructions that may involve an update to the stack
> +     pointer.  Some classes can be skipped altogether though, as they cannot be
> +     used to push or pop stack because of disallowed writeback:
> +      - ldst_unscaled, ldst_regoff, ldst_unpriv, ldstexcl, loadlit,
> +     ldstnapair_offs.  FIXME double-check.   */
> +  else if (opcode->iclass == ldstpair_off
> +	   || opcode->iclass == ldstpair_indexed
> +	   || opcode->iclass == ldst_imm9
> +	   || opcode->iclass == ldst_imm10
> +	   || opcode->iclass == ldst_pos)
> +    {
> +      addr = &base->operands[num_opnds - 1];
> +      addr_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (addr, true);
> +      /* For all skipped memory operations, check if an update to REG_SP or
> +	 REG_FP is involved.  */
> +      if ((addr_reg == REG_SP || addr_reg == REG_FP)
> +	  && (addr->addr.postind || addr->addr.preind) && addr->addr.writeback)
> +	err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP;
> +    }
> +  /* Finally, also check if the missed instructions are affecting REG_SP or
> +     REG_FP.  */
> +  else if (dest && (dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd
> +		    || dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd_SP))
> +    {
> +      sp_allowed_p = (dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd_SP) ? true : false;
> +      dw2_regnum = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dest, sp_allowed_p);
> +
> +      if (dw2_regnum == REG_SP || dw2_regnum == REG_FP)
> +	err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG;
> +    }
> +
> +  return err;
> +}
> +
> +/* Generate one or more generic GAS instructions, a.k.a, ginsns for the current
> +   machine instruction.
> +
> +   Returns the head of linked list of ginsn(s) added, if success; Returns NULL
> +   if failure.
> +
> +   The input ginsn_gen_mode GMODE determines the set of minimal necessary
> +   ginsns necessary for correctness of any passes applicable for that mode.
> +   For supporting the GINSN_GEN_SCFI generation mode, following is the list of
> +   machine instructions that must be translated into the corresponding ginsns
> +   to ensure correctness of SCFI:
> +     - All instructions affecting the two registers that could potentially
> +       be used as the base register for CFA tracking.  For SCFI, the base
> +       register for CFA tracking is limited to REG_SP and REG_FP only.
> +     - All change of flow instructions: conditional and unconditional branches,
> +       call and return from functions.
> +     - All instructions that can potentially be a register save / restore
> +       operations.
> +     - All instructions that may update the stack pointer: pre-indexed and
> +     post-indexed stack operations with writeback.
> +
> +   The function currently supports GINSN_GEN_SCFI ginsn generation mode only.
> +   To support other generation modes will require work on this target-specific
> +   process of creation of ginsns:
> +     - Some of such places are tagged with TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI to serve as
> +       possible starting points.
> +     - Also note that ginsn representation may need enhancements.  Specifically,
> +       note some TBD_GINSN_INFO_LOSS and TBD_GINSN_REPRESENTATION_LIMIT markers.
> +   */
> +
> +static ginsnS *
> +aarch64_ginsn_new (const symbolS *insn_end_sym, enum ginsn_gen_mode gmode)
> +{
> +  int err = 0;
> +  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
> +  unsigned int dw2_regnum;
> +  aarch64_opnd_info *dest = NULL;
> +  bool sp_allowed_p = false;
> +  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
> +  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
> +
> +  /* Currently supports generation of selected ginsns, sufficient for
> +     the use-case of SCFI only.  To remove this condition will require
> +     work on this target-specific process of creation of ginsns.  Some
> +     of such places are tagged with TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI to serve as
> +     examples.  */
> +  if (gmode != GINSN_GEN_SCFI)
> +    return ginsn;
> +
> +  switch (opcode->opcode)
> +    {
> +    case 0x0b200000: /* addsub_ext.  add (extended register).  */
> +    case 0x4b200000: /* addsub_ext.  sub (extended register).  */
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_addsub_reg (insn_end_sym);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x2c800000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Store fp register pair.  */
> +    case 0x28800000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Store register pair.  */
> +      /* pre-index: stp     x29, x30, [sp, -128]!
> +	 post-index: stp     x29, x30, [sp] -128.  */
> +    case 0x29000000: /* ldstpair_off.  Store register pair (offset).  */
> +      /* stp     x19, x20, [sp, 16].  */
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstp (insn_end_sym, true);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x2cc00000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Load fp register pair.  */
> +    case 0x28c00000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Load register pair.  */
> +      /* pre-index:  ldp     x29, x30, [sp, -128]!
> +	 post-index: ldp     x29, x30, [sp], -128.  */
> +    case 0x29400000: /* ldstpair_off.  Load register pair (offset).  */
> +      /* ldp     x19, x20, [sp, 16].  */
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstp (insn_end_sym, false);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x38000400: /* ldst_imm9.  Store register (immediate indexed).  */
> +      /* strb    w7, [sp, 255]!  */
> +    case 0x3c000400: /* ldst_imm9.  Store FP register (immediate indexed).  */
> +      /* str     q29, [sp, 44]!  */
> +    case 0xb8000400: /* ldst_imm9.  Store register (immediate indexed).  */
> +      /* str     x19, [sp], 32  */
> +    case 0x78000400: /* ldst_imm9.  strh.  */
> +    case 0xb9000000: /* ldst_pos.  Store register (unsigned immediate).  */
> +      /* str     x19, [sp]  */
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstr (insn_end_sym, true);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x38400400: /* ldst_imm9.  Load register (immediate indexed).  */
> +      /* ldrb    w7, [sp, 255]!  */
> +    case 0x3c400400: /* ldst_imm9.  Load FP register (immediate indexed).  */
> +      /* ldr     q29, [sp, 44]!  */
> +    case 0xb8400400: /* ldst_imm9.  Load register (immediate indexed).  */
> +      /* ldr     x19, [sp], 32  */
> +      /* Following sub-word loads can affect stack-pointer due to indexed
> +	 addressing mode.  */
> +    case 0x38800400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrsb.  */
> +    case 0x78400400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrh.  */
> +    case 0x78800400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrsh.  */
> +    case 0xb8800400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrsw.  */
> +    case 0xb9400000: /* ldst_pos.  Load register (unsigned immediate).  */
> +      /* ldr     x19, [sp]  */
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstr (insn_end_sym, false);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x51000000:
> +      /* sub.  */
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm (insn_end_sym);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x52800000:
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_mov (insn_end_sym);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x11000000:
> +      if (opcode->mask == 0x7ffffc00)
> +	ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_mov (insn_end_sym);
> +      else if (opcode->mask == 0x7f000000)
> +	ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm (insn_end_sym);
> +      break;
> +    case 0xd65f0000:
> +      ginsn = ginsn_new_return (insn_end_sym, true);
> +      ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x14000000: /* b.  */
> +    case 0xd61f0000: /* br.  */
> +    case 0x94000000: /* bl.  */
> +    case 0xd63f0000: /* blr.  */
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_jump (insn_end_sym);
> +      break;
> +    case 0x34000000: /* cbz.  */
> +    case 0x35000000: /* cbnz.  */
> +      /* Although cbz/cbnz has an additional operand and are functionally
> +	 distinct from conditional branches, it is fine to use the same ginsn
> +	 type for both from the perspective of SCFI.  */
> +    case 0x36000000: /* tbz.  */
> +    case 0x37000000: /* tbnz.  */
> +    case 0x54000000 ... 0x5400000d:
> +      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_jump_cond (insn_end_sym);
> +      break;
> +    default:
> +      /* TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI: Skip all other opcodes uninteresting for
> +	 GINSN_GEN_SCFI mode.  */
> +      break;
> +    }
> +
> +  if (!ginsn && !aarch64_ginsn_safe_to_skip_p ())
> +    {
> +      /* For all unhandled insns, check that they no not impact SCFI
> +	 correctness.  */
> +      err = aarch64_ginsn_unhandled ();
> +      switch (err)
> +	{
> +	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE:
> +	  break;
> +	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG:
> +	  /* Not all writes to REG_FP are harmful in context of SCFI.  Simply
> +	     generate a GINSN_TYPE_OTHER with destination set to the
> +	     appropriate register.  The SCFI machinery will bail out if this
> +	     ginsn affects SCFI correctness.  */
> +	  dest = &base->operands[0];
> +	  sp_allowed_p = (dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd_SP) ? true : false;
> +	  dw2_regnum = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dest, sp_allowed_p);
> +	  ginsn = ginsn_new_other (insn_end_sym, true,
> +				   GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0,
> +				   GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0,
> +				   GINSN_DST_REG, dw2_regnum);
> +	  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
> +	  break;
> +	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG:
> +	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP:
> +	  as_bad (_("SCFI: unhandled op %#x may cause incorrect CFI"),
> +		  opcode->opcode);
> +	  break;
> +	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_UNEXPECTED:
> +	  as_bad (_("SCFI: unexpected op %#x may cause incorrect CFI"),
> +		  opcode->opcode);
> +	  break;
> +	default:
> +	  abort ();
> +	  break;
> +	}
> +    }
> +
> +  return ginsn;
> +}
> +
> +#endif /* OBJ_ELF */
> +
>  static void
>  output_inst (struct aarch64_inst *new_inst)
>  {
> @@ -8520,6 +9254,16 @@ md_assemble (char *str)
>  	      output_inst (copy);
>  	    }
>  
> +#ifdef OBJ_ELF
> +	  if (flag_synth_cfi)
> +	    {
> +	      ginsnS *ginsn;
> +	      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_new (symbol_temp_new_now (),
> +					 frch_ginsn_gen_mode ());
> +	      frch_ginsn_data_append (ginsn);
> +	    }
> +#endif
> +
>  	  /* Issue non-fatal messages if any.  */
>  	  output_operand_error_report (str, true);
>  	  return;
> diff --git a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h
> index 1b8badad9fd..97147bd5e97 100644
> --- a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h
> +++ b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h
> @@ -263,6 +263,26 @@ extern void aarch64_after_parse_args (void);
>  
>  #ifdef OBJ_ELF
>  
> +#define TARGET_USE_GINSN 1
> +/* Allow GAS to synthesize DWARF CFI for hand-written asm.
> +   PS: TARGET_USE_CFIPOP is a pre-condition.  */
> +#define TARGET_USE_SCFI 1
> +/* Identify the maximum DWARF register number of all the registers being
> +   tracked for SCFI.  This is the last DWARF register number of the set
> +   of SP, FP, and all callee-saved registers.  For Aarch64, this means 31.  */
> +# define SCFI_MAX_REG_ID 31
> +/* Identify the DWARF register number of the frame-pointer register.  */
> +# define REG_FP 29
> +/* Identify the DWARF register number of the link register.  */
> +# define REG_LR 30
> +/* Identify the DWARF register number of the stack-pointer register.  */
> +# define REG_SP 31
> +
> +#define SCFI_INIT_CFA_OFFSET 0
> +
> +#define SCFI_CALLEE_SAVED_REG_P(dw2reg)  aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (dw2reg)
> +extern bool aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (uint32_t dw2reg_num);
> +
>  /* Whether SFrame stack trace info is supported.  */
>  extern bool aarch64_support_sframe_p (void);
>  #define support_sframe_p aarch64_support_sframe_p
  

Patch

diff --git a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c
index 6ad4fae8b0e..81b95919969 100644
--- a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c
+++ b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.c
@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@ 
 
 #include "dw2gencfi.h"
 #include "dwarf2dbg.h"
+#include "scfi.h"
 
 #define streq(a, b)	      (strcmp (a, b) == 0)
 
@@ -6062,6 +6063,739 @@  get_aarch64_insn (char *buf)
   return result;
 }
 
+#ifdef OBJ_ELF
+
+/* DWARF register number for R1.  Used as dummy value when WZR.  */
+#define GINSN_DW2_REGNUM_R1_DUMMY 1
+
+/* Return whether the given register number is a callee-saved register for SCFI
+   purposes.  SCFI always tracks SP, FP and LR additionally.  */
+
+bool
+aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (uint32_t dw2reg_num)
+{
+  if (dw2reg_num == REG_SP /* x31.  */
+      || dw2reg_num == REG_FP /* x29.  */
+      || dw2reg_num == REG_LR /* x30.  */
+      || (dw2reg_num >= 19 && dw2reg_num <= 28) /* x19 - x28.  */)
+    return true;
+
+  return false;
+}
+
+/* Get the DWARF register number for the given OPND.
+   Whether 31 is used to encode WZR or SP is specified via SP_ALLOWED_P.
+
+   The caller must decide the value of SP_ALLOWED_P based on the instruction
+   encoding.  */
+
+static uint32_t
+ginsn_dw2_regnum (aarch64_opnd_info *opnd, bool sp_allowed_p)
+{
+  /* Use a dummy register value in case of WZR, else this will be an
+     incorrect dependency on REG_SP.  */
+  if (!sp_allowed_p && opnd->reg.regno == REG_SP)
+    return GINSN_DW2_REGNUM_R1_DUMMY;
+  /* For registers of our interest (callee-saved regs, SP, FP, LR),
+     DWARF register number is the same as AArch64 register number.  */
+  return opnd->reg.regno;
+}
+
+/* Generate ginsn for addsub instructions with immediate opnd.  */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
+{
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  bool add_p, sub_p;
+  int32_t src_imm = 0;
+  uint32_t dst_reg, opnd_reg;
+  aarch64_opnd_info *dst, *opnd;
+  ginsnS *(*ginsn_func) (const symbolS *, bool,
+			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
+			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
+			 enum ginsn_dst_type, unsigned int, offsetT);
+
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+
+  add_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x11000000);
+  sub_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x51000000);
+  gas_assert (add_p || sub_p);
+  ginsn_func = add_p ? ginsn_new_add : ginsn_new_sub;
+
+  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 3);
+  dst = &base->operands[0];
+  opnd = &base->operands[1];
+
+  dst_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dst, true);
+
+  if (aarch64_gas_internal_fixup_p () && inst.reloc.exp.X_op == O_constant)
+    src_imm = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_number;
+  /* For any other relocation type, e.g., in add reg, reg, symbol, skip now and
+     handle via aarch64_ginsn_unhandled () code path.  */
+  else if (inst.reloc.type != BFD_RELOC_UNUSED)
+    return ginsn;
+  /* FIXME - verify the understanding and remove assert.  */
+  else
+    gas_assert (0);
+
+  opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd, true);
+
+  ginsn = ginsn_func (insn_end_sym, true,
+		      GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg, 0,
+		      GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0, src_imm,
+		      GINSN_DST_REG, dst_reg, 0);
+  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
+
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+/* Generate ginsn for addsub instructions with reg opnd.  */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_addsub_reg (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
+{
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  bool add_p, sub_p;
+  uint32_t dst_reg, src1_reg, src2_reg;
+  aarch64_opnd_info *dst, *src1, *src2;
+  ginsnS *(*ginsn_func) (const symbolS *, bool,
+			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
+			 enum ginsn_src_type, unsigned int, offsetT,
+			 enum ginsn_dst_type, unsigned int, offsetT);
+
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+
+  add_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x0b200000);
+  sub_p = (opcode->opcode == 0x4b200000);
+  gas_assert (add_p || sub_p);
+  ginsn_func = add_p ? ginsn_new_add : ginsn_new_sub;
+
+  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 3);
+  dst = &base->operands[0];
+  src1 = &base->operands[1];
+  src2 = &base->operands[2];
+
+  dst_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dst, true);
+  src1_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (src1, true);
+  src2_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (src2, false);
+
+  ginsn = ginsn_func (insn_end_sym, true,
+		      GINSN_SRC_REG, src1_reg, 0,
+		      GINSN_SRC_REG, src2_reg, 0,
+		      GINSN_DST_REG, dst_reg, 0);
+  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
+
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+/* Generate ginsn for the load pair and store pair instructions.  */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_ldstp (const symbolS *insn_end_sym, bool store_p)
+{
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  ginsnS *ginsn_ind = NULL;
+  ginsnS *ginsn_mem1 = NULL;
+  ginsnS *ginsn_mem2 = NULL;
+  uint32_t opnd_reg, addr_reg;
+  int32_t offset, mem_offset;
+  unsigned int width = 8;
+
+  aarch64_opnd_info *opnd1, *opnd2, *addr;
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+
+  /* This function is for handling ldp / stp ops only.  */
+  gas_assert (opcode->iclass == ldstpair_indexed
+	      || opcode->iclass == ldstpair_off);
+  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 3);
+
+  opnd1 = &base->operands[0];
+  opnd2 = &base->operands[1];
+  addr = &base->operands[2];
+
+  addr_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (addr, true);
+  gas_assert (!addr->addr.offset.is_reg);
+  mem_offset = addr->addr.offset.imm;
+  if (opnd1->qualifier == AARCH64_OPND_QLF_W)
+    width = 4;
+
+  /* Handle address calculation.  */
+  if ((addr->addr.preind || addr->addr.postind) && addr->addr.writeback)
+    {
+      /* Pre-indexed store, e.g., stp x29, x30, [sp, -128]!
+	 Pre-indexed addressing is like offset addressing, except that
+	 the base pointer is updated as a result of the instruction.
+
+	 Post-indexed store, e.g., stp     x29, x30, [sp],128
+	 Post-index addressing is useful for popping off the stack.  The
+	 instruction loads the value from the location pointed at by the stack
+	 pointer, and then moves the stack pointer on to the next full location
+	 in the stack.  */
+      ginsn_ind = ginsn_new_add (insn_end_sym, false,
+				 GINSN_SRC_REG, addr_reg, 0,
+				 GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0, mem_offset,
+				 GINSN_DST_REG, addr_reg, 0);
+      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_ind);
+    }
+
+  /* Save / restore of floating point registers is not of interest for SCFI.
+     However, the address processing component may have updated the stack
+     pointer.  At least, emit that ginsn and return.
+     TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI.  */
+  if (aarch64_get_operand_class (opnd1->type) != AARCH64_OPND_CLASS_INT_REG)
+    return ginsn_ind;
+
+  /* With post-index addressing, the value is loaded from the
+     address in the base pointer, and then the pointer is updated.
+     With pre-index addressing, the addr computation has already
+     been explicitly done.  */
+  offset = mem_offset;
+  if ((addr->addr.postind || addr->addr.preind) && addr->addr.writeback)
+    offset = 0;
+
+  opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd1, false);
+  if (store_p)
+    {
+      ginsn_mem1 = ginsn_new_store (insn_end_sym, false,
+				    GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg,
+				    GINSN_DST_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset);
+      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem1);
+
+      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd2, false);
+      ginsn_mem2 = ginsn_new_store (insn_end_sym, false,
+				    GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg,
+				    GINSN_DST_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset + width);
+      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem2);
+    }
+  else
+    {
+      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd1, false);
+      ginsn_mem1 = ginsn_new_load (insn_end_sym, false,
+				   GINSN_SRC_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset,
+				   GINSN_DST_REG, opnd_reg);
+      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem1);
+
+      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd2, false);
+      ginsn_mem2 = ginsn_new_load (insn_end_sym, false,
+				   GINSN_SRC_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset + width,
+				   GINSN_DST_REG, opnd_reg);
+      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem2);
+    }
+
+  /* Link the list of ginsns created.  */
+  if (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback)
+    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_ind, ginsn_mem1));
+
+  gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_mem1, ginsn_mem2));
+
+  if (addr->addr.postind && addr->addr.writeback)
+    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_mem2, ginsn_ind));
+
+  /* Make note of the first instruction in the list.  */
+  ginsn = (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback) ? ginsn_ind : ginsn_mem1;
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+/* Generate ginsn for load and store instructions.  */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_ldstr (const symbolS *insn_end_sym, bool store_p)
+{
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  ginsnS *ginsn_ind = NULL;
+  ginsnS *ginsn_mem = NULL;
+  uint32_t opnd_reg, addr_reg;
+  int32_t offset = 0;
+  int32_t mem_offset = 0;
+
+  aarch64_opnd_info *opnd1, *addr;
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+
+  /* This function is for handling ldr, str ops only.  */
+  gas_assert (opcode->iclass == ldst_imm9 || opcode->iclass == ldst_pos);
+  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 2);
+
+  opnd1 = &base->operands[0];
+  addr = &base->operands[1];
+
+  addr_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (addr, true);
+
+  /* STR <Xt>, [<Xn|SP>, (<Wm>|<Xm>){, <extend> {<amount>}}].
+     LDR <Xt>, [<Xn|SP>], #<simm>.  */
+  opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd1, false);
+
+  /* If opnd_reg is WZR, ignore this (OK to do for SCFI).  Note, this is a
+     potential case of TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI.  */
+  if (opnd_reg == REG_SP)
+    return ginsn;
+
+  if (aarch64_gas_internal_fixup_p () && inst.reloc.exp.X_op == O_constant)
+    mem_offset = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_number;
+  else
+    {
+      gas_assert (!addr->addr.offset.is_reg);
+      mem_offset = addr->addr.offset.imm;
+    }
+
+  /* Handle address calculation.  */
+  if ((addr->addr.preind || addr->addr.postind) && addr->addr.writeback)
+    {
+      ginsn_ind = ginsn_new_add (insn_end_sym, false,
+				 GINSN_SRC_REG, addr_reg, 0,
+				 GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0, mem_offset,
+				 GINSN_DST_REG, addr_reg, 0);
+      ginsn_set_where (ginsn_ind);
+    }
+
+  /* Save / restore of floating point registers is not of interest for SCFI.
+     However, the address processing component may have updated the stack
+     pointer.  At least, emit that ginsn and return.
+     TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI.  */
+  if (aarch64_get_operand_class (opnd1->type) != AARCH64_OPND_CLASS_INT_REG)
+    return ginsn_ind;
+
+  /* With post-index addressing, the value is loaded from the
+     address in the base pointer, and then the pointer is updated.
+     With pre-index addressing, the addr computation has already
+     been explicitly done.  */
+  offset = mem_offset;
+  if ((addr->addr.postind || addr->addr.preind) && addr->addr.writeback)
+    offset = 0;
+
+  if (store_p)
+    ginsn_mem = ginsn_new_store (insn_end_sym, false,
+				 GINSN_SRC_REG, opnd_reg,
+				 GINSN_DST_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset);
+  else
+    ginsn_mem = ginsn_new_load (insn_end_sym, false,
+				GINSN_SRC_INDIRECT, addr_reg, offset,
+				GINSN_DST_REG, opnd_reg);
+  ginsn_set_where (ginsn_mem);
+
+  if (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback)
+    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_ind, ginsn_mem));
+  else if (addr->addr.postind && addr->addr.writeback)
+    gas_assert (!ginsn_link_next (ginsn_mem, ginsn_ind));
+
+  /* Make note of the first instruction in the list.  */
+  ginsn = (addr->addr.preind && addr->addr.writeback) ? ginsn_ind : ginsn_mem;
+
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+/* Generate ginsn for unconditional branch instructions.  */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_jump (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
+{
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  const symbolS *src_symbol = NULL;
+  enum ginsn_src_type src_type = GINSN_SRC_UNKNOWN;
+  uint32_t src_value = 0;
+  bool call_p = false;
+
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+
+  if (opcode->iclass == branch_imm)
+    {
+      /* opcode 0x14000000 or 0x94000000.  */
+      gas_assert (inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_CALL26
+		  || inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_JUMP26);
+      src_symbol = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_symbol;
+      src_type = GINSN_SRC_SYMBOL;
+    }
+  else if (opcode->opcode == 0xd61f0000 || opcode->opcode == 0xd63f0000)
+    {
+      src_type = GINSN_SRC_REG;
+      src_value = ginsn_dw2_regnum (&base->operands[0], false);
+    }
+
+  if (opcode->opcode == 0x94000000 || opcode->opcode == 0xd63f0000)
+    call_p = true;
+
+  gas_assert (src_type != GINSN_SRC_UNKNOWN);
+
+  if (call_p)
+    ginsn = ginsn_new_call (insn_end_sym, true,
+			   src_type, src_value, src_symbol);
+  else
+    ginsn = ginsn_new_jump (insn_end_sym, true,
+			    src_type, src_value, src_symbol);
+  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
+
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+/* Generate ginsn for conditional branch instructions.  */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_jump_cond (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
+{
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  const symbolS *src_symbol;
+  enum ginsn_src_type src_type = GINSN_SRC_SYMBOL;
+
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+  aarch64_insn opc = opcode->opcode;
+
+  gas_assert ((opc == 0x34000000 || opc == 0x35000000
+	       || opc == 0x36000000 || opc == 0x37000000)
+	      || (opc >= 0x54000000 && opc <= 0x5400000d));
+
+  gas_assert (inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_BRANCH19
+	      || inst.reloc.type == BFD_RELOC_AARCH64_TSTBR14);
+  src_symbol = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_symbol;
+
+  ginsn = ginsn_new_jump_cond (insn_end_sym, true,
+			       src_type, 0, src_symbol);
+  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
+
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+/* Generate ginsn for mov instructions.  */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_mov (const symbolS *insn_end_sym)
+{
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  uint32_t src_reg = 0, dst_reg;
+  aarch64_opnd_info *src, *dst;
+  offsetT src_imm = 0;
+  enum ginsn_src_type src_type;
+
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+
+  gas_assert (aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode) == 2);
+
+  dst = &base->operands[0];
+  src = &base->operands[1];
+
+  dst_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dst, true);
+
+  if (src->type == AARCH64_OPND_IMM_MOV
+      && aarch64_gas_internal_fixup_p () && inst.reloc.exp.X_op == O_constant)
+    {
+      src_imm = inst.reloc.exp.X_add_number;
+      src_type = GINSN_SRC_IMM;
+    }
+  else
+    {
+      /* mov   x27, sp.  */
+      src_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (src, true);
+      src_type = GINSN_SRC_REG;
+    }
+
+  ginsn = ginsn_new_mov (insn_end_sym, false,
+			 src_type, src_reg, src_imm,
+			 GINSN_DST_REG, dst_reg, 0);
+  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
+
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+/* Check if an instruction is whitelisted.
+
+   An instruction is a candidate for whitelisting if not generating ginsn
+   for it, does not affect SCFI correctness.  */
+
+static bool
+aarch64_ginsn_safe_to_skip_p (void)
+{
+  bool skip_p = false;
+  aarch64_opnd_info *opnd = NULL;
+  uint32_t opnd_reg;
+
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+  int num_opnds = aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode);
+  aarch64_opnd_info *addr = &base->operands[num_opnds - 1];
+
+  /* It is not expected to have reg offset based ld/st ops to be used
+     for reg save and restore operations.  Warn the user though.  */
+  if (opcode->iclass == ldst_regoff)
+    {
+      opnd = &base->operands[0];
+      opnd_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (opnd, false);
+      if (aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (opnd_reg))
+	{
+	  skip_p = true;
+	  as_warn ("SCFI: ignored probable save/restore op with reg offset");
+	}
+    }
+
+  switch (opcode->opcode)
+    {
+      /* Load/store FP register pair (offset) are safe to skip even if the base
+	 register is SP-based because there cannot be writeback with pre- or
+	 post- indexing.  */
+    case 0x2d000000: /* ldstpair_off.  Store FP register pair (offset).  */
+    case 0x2d400000: /* ldstpair_off.  Load FP register pair (offset).  */
+    case 0x3d000000: /* ldst_pos.  Store FP register (unsigned immediate).  */
+    case 0x3d400000: /* ldst_pos.  Load FP register (unsigned immediate).  */
+      /* There cannot be a writeback here.  Confirm? FIXME.
+	if not true, need to generate addr gen opcodes at the least.  */
+      gas_assert (!addr->addr.writeback);
+      skip_p = true;
+      break;
+    default:
+      break;
+    }
+
+  return skip_p;
+}
+
+#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE        0
+#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG    1
+#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG         2
+#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP     3
+#define AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_UNEXPECTED  4
+
+/* Check the input insn for its impact on the correctness of the synthesized
+   CFI.  Returns an error code to the caller.  */
+
+static int
+aarch64_ginsn_unhandled (void)
+{
+  int err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE;
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+  aarch64_opnd_info *dest = &base->operands[0];
+  int num_opnds = aarch64_num_of_operands (opcode);
+  aarch64_opnd_info *addr;
+  unsigned int dw2_regnum;
+  uint32_t addr_reg;
+  bool sp_allowed_p = false;
+
+  /* All change of flow instructions are important for SCFI.  */
+  if (opcode->iclass == condbranch
+      || opcode->iclass == compbranch
+      || opcode->iclass == testbranch
+      || opcode->iclass == branch_imm
+      || opcode->iclass == branch_reg)
+    err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG;
+  /* Also, any memory instructions that may involve an update to the stack
+     pointer.  Some classes can be skipped altogether though, as they cannot be
+     used to push or pop stack because of disallowed writeback:
+      - ldst_unscaled, ldst_regoff, ldst_unpriv, ldstexcl, loadlit,
+     ldstnapair_offs.  FIXME double-check.   */
+  else if (opcode->iclass == ldstpair_off
+	   || opcode->iclass == ldstpair_indexed
+	   || opcode->iclass == ldst_imm9
+	   || opcode->iclass == ldst_imm10
+	   || opcode->iclass == ldst_pos)
+    {
+      addr = &base->operands[num_opnds - 1];
+      addr_reg = ginsn_dw2_regnum (addr, true);
+      /* For all skipped memory operations, check if an update to REG_SP or
+	 REG_FP is involved.  */
+      if ((addr_reg == REG_SP || addr_reg == REG_FP)
+	  && (addr->addr.postind || addr->addr.preind) && addr->addr.writeback)
+	err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP;
+    }
+  /* Finally, also check if the missed instructions are affecting REG_SP or
+     REG_FP.  */
+  else if (dest && (dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd
+		    || dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd_SP))
+    {
+      sp_allowed_p = (dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd_SP) ? true : false;
+      dw2_regnum = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dest, sp_allowed_p);
+
+      if (dw2_regnum == REG_SP || dw2_regnum == REG_FP)
+	err = AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG;
+    }
+
+  return err;
+}
+
+/* Generate one or more generic GAS instructions, a.k.a, ginsns for the current
+   machine instruction.
+
+   Returns the head of linked list of ginsn(s) added, if success; Returns NULL
+   if failure.
+
+   The input ginsn_gen_mode GMODE determines the set of minimal necessary
+   ginsns necessary for correctness of any passes applicable for that mode.
+   For supporting the GINSN_GEN_SCFI generation mode, following is the list of
+   machine instructions that must be translated into the corresponding ginsns
+   to ensure correctness of SCFI:
+     - All instructions affecting the two registers that could potentially
+       be used as the base register for CFA tracking.  For SCFI, the base
+       register for CFA tracking is limited to REG_SP and REG_FP only.
+     - All change of flow instructions: conditional and unconditional branches,
+       call and return from functions.
+     - All instructions that can potentially be a register save / restore
+       operations.
+     - All instructions that may update the stack pointer: pre-indexed and
+     post-indexed stack operations with writeback.
+
+   The function currently supports GINSN_GEN_SCFI ginsn generation mode only.
+   To support other generation modes will require work on this target-specific
+   process of creation of ginsns:
+     - Some of such places are tagged with TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI to serve as
+       possible starting points.
+     - Also note that ginsn representation may need enhancements.  Specifically,
+       note some TBD_GINSN_INFO_LOSS and TBD_GINSN_REPRESENTATION_LIMIT markers.
+   */
+
+static ginsnS *
+aarch64_ginsn_new (const symbolS *insn_end_sym, enum ginsn_gen_mode gmode)
+{
+  int err = 0;
+  ginsnS *ginsn = NULL;
+  unsigned int dw2_regnum;
+  aarch64_opnd_info *dest = NULL;
+  bool sp_allowed_p = false;
+  aarch64_inst *base = &inst.base;
+  const aarch64_opcode *opcode = base->opcode;
+
+  /* Currently supports generation of selected ginsns, sufficient for
+     the use-case of SCFI only.  To remove this condition will require
+     work on this target-specific process of creation of ginsns.  Some
+     of such places are tagged with TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI to serve as
+     examples.  */
+  if (gmode != GINSN_GEN_SCFI)
+    return ginsn;
+
+  switch (opcode->opcode)
+    {
+    case 0x0b200000: /* addsub_ext.  add (extended register).  */
+    case 0x4b200000: /* addsub_ext.  sub (extended register).  */
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_addsub_reg (insn_end_sym);
+      break;
+    case 0x2c800000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Store fp register pair.  */
+    case 0x28800000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Store register pair.  */
+      /* pre-index: stp     x29, x30, [sp, -128]!
+	 post-index: stp     x29, x30, [sp] -128.  */
+    case 0x29000000: /* ldstpair_off.  Store register pair (offset).  */
+      /* stp     x19, x20, [sp, 16].  */
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstp (insn_end_sym, true);
+      break;
+    case 0x2cc00000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Load fp register pair.  */
+    case 0x28c00000: /* ldstpair_indexed.  Load register pair.  */
+      /* pre-index:  ldp     x29, x30, [sp, -128]!
+	 post-index: ldp     x29, x30, [sp], -128.  */
+    case 0x29400000: /* ldstpair_off.  Load register pair (offset).  */
+      /* ldp     x19, x20, [sp, 16].  */
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstp (insn_end_sym, false);
+      break;
+    case 0x38000400: /* ldst_imm9.  Store register (immediate indexed).  */
+      /* strb    w7, [sp, 255]!  */
+    case 0x3c000400: /* ldst_imm9.  Store FP register (immediate indexed).  */
+      /* str     q29, [sp, 44]!  */
+    case 0xb8000400: /* ldst_imm9.  Store register (immediate indexed).  */
+      /* str     x19, [sp], 32  */
+    case 0x78000400: /* ldst_imm9.  strh.  */
+    case 0xb9000000: /* ldst_pos.  Store register (unsigned immediate).  */
+      /* str     x19, [sp]  */
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstr (insn_end_sym, true);
+      break;
+    case 0x38400400: /* ldst_imm9.  Load register (immediate indexed).  */
+      /* ldrb    w7, [sp, 255]!  */
+    case 0x3c400400: /* ldst_imm9.  Load FP register (immediate indexed).  */
+      /* ldr     q29, [sp, 44]!  */
+    case 0xb8400400: /* ldst_imm9.  Load register (immediate indexed).  */
+      /* ldr     x19, [sp], 32  */
+      /* Following sub-word loads can affect stack-pointer due to indexed
+	 addressing mode.  */
+    case 0x38800400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrsb.  */
+    case 0x78400400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrh.  */
+    case 0x78800400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrsh.  */
+    case 0xb8800400: /* ldst_imm9.  ldrsw.  */
+    case 0xb9400000: /* ldst_pos.  Load register (unsigned immediate).  */
+      /* ldr     x19, [sp]  */
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_ldstr (insn_end_sym, false);
+      break;
+    case 0x51000000:
+      /* sub.  */
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm (insn_end_sym);
+      break;
+    case 0x52800000:
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_mov (insn_end_sym);
+      break;
+    case 0x11000000:
+      if (opcode->mask == 0x7ffffc00)
+	ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_mov (insn_end_sym);
+      else if (opcode->mask == 0x7f000000)
+	ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_addsub_imm (insn_end_sym);
+      break;
+    case 0xd65f0000:
+      ginsn = ginsn_new_return (insn_end_sym, true);
+      ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
+      break;
+    case 0x14000000: /* b.  */
+    case 0xd61f0000: /* br.  */
+    case 0x94000000: /* bl.  */
+    case 0xd63f0000: /* blr.  */
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_jump (insn_end_sym);
+      break;
+    case 0x34000000: /* cbz.  */
+    case 0x35000000: /* cbnz.  */
+      /* Although cbz/cbnz has an additional operand and are functionally
+	 distinct from conditional branches, it is fine to use the same ginsn
+	 type for both from the perspective of SCFI.  */
+    case 0x36000000: /* tbz.  */
+    case 0x37000000: /* tbnz.  */
+    case 0x54000000 ... 0x5400000d:
+      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_jump_cond (insn_end_sym);
+      break;
+    default:
+      /* TBD_GINSN_GEN_NOT_SCFI: Skip all other opcodes uninteresting for
+	 GINSN_GEN_SCFI mode.  */
+      break;
+    }
+
+  if (!ginsn && !aarch64_ginsn_safe_to_skip_p ())
+    {
+      /* For all unhandled insns, check that they no not impact SCFI
+	 correctness.  */
+      err = aarch64_ginsn_unhandled ();
+      switch (err)
+	{
+	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_NONE:
+	  break;
+	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_DEST_REG:
+	  /* Not all writes to REG_FP are harmful in context of SCFI.  Simply
+	     generate a GINSN_TYPE_OTHER with destination set to the
+	     appropriate register.  The SCFI machinery will bail out if this
+	     ginsn affects SCFI correctness.  */
+	  dest = &base->operands[0];
+	  sp_allowed_p = (dest->type == AARCH64_OPND_Rd_SP) ? true : false;
+	  dw2_regnum = ginsn_dw2_regnum (dest, sp_allowed_p);
+	  ginsn = ginsn_new_other (insn_end_sym, true,
+				   GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0,
+				   GINSN_SRC_IMM, 0,
+				   GINSN_DST_REG, dw2_regnum);
+	  ginsn_set_where (ginsn);
+	  break;
+	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_CFG:
+	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_STACKOP:
+	  as_bad (_("SCFI: unhandled op %#x may cause incorrect CFI"),
+		  opcode->opcode);
+	  break;
+	case AARCH64_GINSN_UNHANDLED_UNEXPECTED:
+	  as_bad (_("SCFI: unexpected op %#x may cause incorrect CFI"),
+		  opcode->opcode);
+	  break;
+	default:
+	  abort ();
+	  break;
+	}
+    }
+
+  return ginsn;
+}
+
+#endif /* OBJ_ELF */
+
 static void
 output_inst (struct aarch64_inst *new_inst)
 {
@@ -8520,6 +9254,16 @@  md_assemble (char *str)
 	      output_inst (copy);
 	    }
 
+#ifdef OBJ_ELF
+	  if (flag_synth_cfi)
+	    {
+	      ginsnS *ginsn;
+	      ginsn = aarch64_ginsn_new (symbol_temp_new_now (),
+					 frch_ginsn_gen_mode ());
+	      frch_ginsn_data_append (ginsn);
+	    }
+#endif
+
 	  /* Issue non-fatal messages if any.  */
 	  output_operand_error_report (str, true);
 	  return;
diff --git a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h
index 1b8badad9fd..97147bd5e97 100644
--- a/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h
+++ b/gas/config/tc-aarch64.h
@@ -263,6 +263,26 @@  extern void aarch64_after_parse_args (void);
 
 #ifdef OBJ_ELF
 
+#define TARGET_USE_GINSN 1
+/* Allow GAS to synthesize DWARF CFI for hand-written asm.
+   PS: TARGET_USE_CFIPOP is a pre-condition.  */
+#define TARGET_USE_SCFI 1
+/* Identify the maximum DWARF register number of all the registers being
+   tracked for SCFI.  This is the last DWARF register number of the set
+   of SP, FP, and all callee-saved registers.  For Aarch64, this means 31.  */
+# define SCFI_MAX_REG_ID 31
+/* Identify the DWARF register number of the frame-pointer register.  */
+# define REG_FP 29
+/* Identify the DWARF register number of the link register.  */
+# define REG_LR 30
+/* Identify the DWARF register number of the stack-pointer register.  */
+# define REG_SP 31
+
+#define SCFI_INIT_CFA_OFFSET 0
+
+#define SCFI_CALLEE_SAVED_REG_P(dw2reg)  aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (dw2reg)
+extern bool aarch64_scfi_callee_saved_p (uint32_t dw2reg_num);
+
 /* Whether SFrame stack trace info is supported.  */
 extern bool aarch64_support_sframe_p (void);
 #define support_sframe_p aarch64_support_sframe_p