diff mbox

[malloc] Speedup fastbin paths

Message ID DB6PR0801MB2053DC70DAED3692FB84950783790@DB6PR0801MB2053.eurprd08.prod.outlook.com
State Superseded
Headers show

Commit Message

Wilco Dijkstra Sept. 28, 2017, 3:28 p.m. UTC
This patch speeds up the fastbin paths.  When an application is
single-threaded, we can execute a simpler, faster fastbin path.
Doing this at a high level means we only need a single check
which can bypass multiple locks, atomic instructions and related
extra complexity.

The speedup for fastbin allocations on AArch64 is about 2.4 times.
The number of load/store exclusive instructions is now zero in
single-threaded scenarios.

Also inline tcache_get and tcache_put for a 16% performance gain
of the tcache fast paths. 

Bench-malloc-thread speeds up by an extra ~5% on top of the previous
patch for the single-threaded case and ~2.5% for the multi-threaded
case (in total ~9% for 1 thread and ~6% for 32 threads with the
have_fastchunk improvement).

Passes GLIBC tests. OK to commit?

ChangeLog:
2017-09-28  Wilco Dijkstra  <wdijkstr@arm.com>

	* malloc/malloc.c (sysdep-cancel.h): Add include.
	(tcache_put): Inline.
	(tcache_get): Inline.
	(__libc_malloc): Add SINGLE_THREAD_P path.
	(_int_malloc): Likewise.
	(_int_free): Likewise.

--

Comments

Carlos O'Donell Oct. 6, 2017, 10 p.m. UTC | #1
On 09/28/2017 08:28 AM, Wilco Dijkstra wrote:
> This patch speeds up the fastbin paths.  When an application is
> single-threaded, we can execute a simpler, faster fastbin path.
> Doing this at a high level means we only need a single check
> which can bypass multiple locks, atomic instructions and related
> extra complexity.
> 
> The speedup for fastbin allocations on AArch64 is about 2.4 times.
> The number of load/store exclusive instructions is now zero in
> single-threaded scenarios.
> 
> Also inline tcache_get and tcache_put for a 16% performance gain
> of the tcache fast paths. 
> 
> Bench-malloc-thread speeds up by an extra ~5% on top of the previous
> patch for the single-threaded case and ~2.5% for the multi-threaded
> case (in total ~9% for 1 thread and ~6% for 32 threads with the
> have_fastchunk improvement).

(1) At the high level.

This patch is awesome. The performance numbers you quote are impressive.
I'm grateful to see this kind of detailed performance optimizations of
the hot paths using microbenchmarks for feedback. Thank you for providing
an objective measure of success here.

You really have two optimizations. Please split this patch in two.

(a) SINGLE_THREAD_P optimization.

(b) Inlining changes.

We should measure each separately, but you can use the performance
gains from one to rationalize the other. For example if the single
threaded performance improvement worsens the multi-threaded case,
you can argue that the gain is net win with the inlining changes.
 
(2) At the design level.

There is too much code duplication in the fastbin acquire path in 
_int_malloc for my liking. Can we try to reduce this a bit and make
the code tighter?

(3) Implementation details.

No nits to pick.

> Passes GLIBC tests. OK to commit?
> 
> ChangeLog:
> 2017-09-28  Wilco Dijkstra  <wdijkstr@arm.com>
> 
> 	* malloc/malloc.c (sysdep-cancel.h): Add include.
> 	(tcache_put): Inline.
> 	(tcache_get): Inline.
> 	(__libc_malloc): Add SINGLE_THREAD_P path.
> 	(_int_malloc): Likewise.
> 	(_int_free): Likewise.
> 
> --
> 
> diff --git a/malloc/malloc.c b/malloc/malloc.c
> index 082c2b927727bff441cf48744265628d0bc40add..88cfd25766eba6787faeb7195d95b73d7a4637ab 100644
> --- a/malloc/malloc.c
> +++ b/malloc/malloc.c
> @@ -243,6 +243,10 @@
>  
>  #include <malloc/malloc-internal.h>
>  
> +/* For SINGLE_THREAD_P.  */
> +#include <sysdep-cancel.h>

OK.

> +
> +
>  /*
>    Debugging:
>  
> @@ -2909,7 +2913,7 @@ static __thread tcache_perthread_struct *tcache = NULL;
>  
>  /* Caller must ensure that we know tc_idx is valid and there's room
>     for more chunks.  */
> -static void
> +static inline void

OK. Nice.

>  tcache_put (mchunkptr chunk, size_t tc_idx)
>  {
>    tcache_entry *e = (tcache_entry *) chunk2mem (chunk);
> @@ -2921,7 +2925,7 @@ tcache_put (mchunkptr chunk, size_t tc_idx)
>  
>  /* Caller must ensure that we know tc_idx is valid and there's
>     available chunks to remove.  */
> -static void *
> +static inline void *

OK. Also nice. We want to inline where we can, balanced against i-cache pressure.

>  tcache_get (size_t tc_idx)
>  {
>    tcache_entry *e = tcache->entries[tc_idx];
> @@ -3030,24 +3034,34 @@ __libc_malloc (size_t bytes)
>    DIAG_POP_NEEDS_COMMENT;
>  #endif
>  
> -  arena_get (ar_ptr, bytes);
> -
> -  victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
> -  /* Retry with another arena only if we were able to find a usable arena
> -     before.  */
> -  if (!victim && ar_ptr != NULL)
> +  if (SINGLE_THREAD_P)
>      {
> -      LIBC_PROBE (memory_malloc_retry, 1, bytes);
> -      ar_ptr = arena_get_retry (ar_ptr, bytes);
> -      victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
> +      victim = _int_malloc (&main_arena, bytes);

OK.

Interesting, so you switch to using the main_arena if we're single
threaded, otherwise go look for an arena. That makes sense.


> +      assert (!victim || chunk_is_mmapped (mem2chunk (victim)) ||
> +	      &main_arena == arena_for_chunk (mem2chunk (victim)));
> +      return victim;
>      }
> +  else
> +    {
> +      arena_get (ar_ptr, bytes);
>  
> -  if (ar_ptr != NULL)
> -    __libc_lock_unlock (ar_ptr->mutex);
> +      victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
> +      /* Retry with another arena only if we were able to find a usable arena
> +	 before.  */
> +      if (!victim && ar_ptr != NULL)
> +	{
> +	  LIBC_PROBE (memory_malloc_retry, 1, bytes);
> +	  ar_ptr = arena_get_retry (ar_ptr, bytes);
> +	  victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
> +	}
> +
> +      if (ar_ptr != NULL)
> +	__libc_lock_unlock (ar_ptr->mutex);
>  
> -  assert (!victim || chunk_is_mmapped (mem2chunk (victim)) ||
> -          ar_ptr == arena_for_chunk (mem2chunk (victim)));
> -  return victim;
> +      assert (!victim || chunk_is_mmapped (mem2chunk (victim)) ||
> +	      ar_ptr == arena_for_chunk (mem2chunk (victim)));
> +      return victim;
> +    }
>  }
>  libc_hidden_def (__libc_malloc)
>  
> @@ -3526,39 +3540,81 @@ _int_malloc (mstate av, size_t bytes)
>  
>    if ((unsigned long) (nb) <= (unsigned long) (get_max_fast ()))
>      {
> -      idx = fastbin_index (nb);
> -      mfastbinptr *fb = &fastbin (av, idx);
> -      mchunkptr pp = *fb;
> -      REMOVE_FB (fb, victim, pp);
> -      if (victim != 0)
> -        {
> -          if (__builtin_expect (fastbin_index (chunksize (victim)) != idx, 0))
> -	    malloc_printerr ("malloc(): memory corruption (fast)");
> -          check_remalloced_chunk (av, victim, nb);
> -#if USE_TCACHE
> -	  /* While we're here, if we see other chunks of the same size,
> -	     stash them in the tcache.  */
> -	  size_t tc_idx = csize2tidx (nb);
> -	  if (tcache && tc_idx < mp_.tcache_bins)
> +      if (SINGLE_THREAD_P)
> +	{
> +	  idx = fastbin_index (nb);
> +	  mfastbinptr *fb = &fastbin (av, idx);
> +	  mchunkptr next;
> +	  victim = *fb;
> +	  if (victim != NULL)
>  	    {
> -	      mchunkptr tc_victim;
> -
> -	      /* While bin not empty and tcache not full, copy chunks over.  */
> -	      while (tcache->counts[tc_idx] < mp_.tcache_count
> -		     && (pp = *fb) != NULL)
> +	      size_t victim_idx = fastbin_index (chunksize (victim));
> +	      next = victim->fd;
> +	      if (__builtin_expect (victim_idx != idx, 0))
> +		malloc_printerr ("malloc(): memory corruption (fast)");
> +	      check_remalloced_chunk (av, victim, nb);
> +#if USE_TCACHE
> +	      /* While we're here, if we see other chunks of the same size,
> +		 stash them in the tcache.  */
> +	      size_t tc_idx = csize2tidx (nb);
> +	      if (next != NULL && tcache && tc_idx < mp_.tcache_bins)
>  		{
> -		  REMOVE_FB (fb, tc_victim, pp);
> -		  if (tc_victim != 0)
> +		  mchunkptr tc_victim;
> +
> +		  /* While bin not empty and tcache not full, copy chunks.  */
> +		  while (tcache->counts[tc_idx] < mp_.tcache_count)
>  		    {
> +		      tc_victim = next;
> +		      next = tc_victim->fd;
>  		      tcache_put (tc_victim, tc_idx);
> -	            }
> +		      if (next == NULL)
> +			break;
> +		    }
>  		}
> -	    }
>  #endif
> -          void *p = chunk2mem (victim);
> -          alloc_perturb (p, bytes);
> -          return p;
> +	      *fb = next;
> +	      void *p = chunk2mem (victim);
> +	      alloc_perturb (p, bytes);
> +	      return p;
> +	    }
>          }
> +      else
> +	{
> +	  idx = fastbin_index (nb);
> +	  mfastbinptr *fb = &fastbin (av, idx);
> +	  mchunkptr pp = *fb;
> +	  REMOVE_FB (fb, victim, pp);
> +	  if (victim != 0)
> +	    {
> +	      size_t victim_idx = fastbin_index (chunksize (victim));
> +	      if (__builtin_expect (victim_idx != idx, 0))
> +		malloc_printerr ("malloc(): memory corruption (fast)");
> +	      check_remalloced_chunk (av, victim, nb);
> +#if USE_TCACHE
> +	      /* While we're here, if we see other chunks of the same size,
> +		 stash them in the tcache.  */
> +	      size_t tc_idx = csize2tidx (nb);
> +	      if (tcache && tc_idx < mp_.tcache_bins)
> +		{
> +		  mchunkptr tc_victim;
> +
> +		  /* While bin not empty and tcache not full, copy chunks.  */
> +		  while (tcache->counts[tc_idx] < mp_.tcache_count
> +			 && (pp = *fb) != NULL)
> +		    {
> +		      REMOVE_FB (fb, tc_victim, pp);
> +		      if (tc_victim != 0)
> +			{
> +			  tcache_put (tc_victim, tc_idx);
> +			}
> +		    }
> +		}
> +#endif
> +	      void *p = chunk2mem (victim);
> +	      alloc_perturb (p, bytes);
> +	      return p;
> +	    }
> +	}

These two loops are *very* similar, is there any way we can refactor
this into static inline helper functions and reduce the duplication?


>      }
>  
>    /*
> @@ -4158,24 +4214,36 @@ _int_free (mstate av, mchunkptr p, int have_lock)
>      /* Atomically link P to its fastbin: P->FD = *FB; *FB = P;  */
>      mchunkptr old = *fb, old2;
>      unsigned int old_idx = ~0u;
> -    do
> +
> +    if (SINGLE_THREAD_P && !have_lock)
>        {
> -	/* Check that the top of the bin is not the record we are going to add
> -	   (i.e., double free).  */
>  	if (__builtin_expect (old == p, 0))
>  	  malloc_printerr ("double free or corruption (fasttop)");
> -	/* Check that size of fastbin chunk at the top is the same as
> -	   size of the chunk that we are adding.  We can dereference OLD
> -	   only if we have the lock, otherwise it might have already been
> -	   deallocated.  See use of OLD_IDX below for the actual check.  */
> -	if (have_lock && old != NULL)
> -	  old_idx = fastbin_index(chunksize(old));
> -	p->fd = old2 = old;
> +	p->fd = old;
> +	*fb = p;
>        }
> -    while ((old = catomic_compare_and_exchange_val_rel (fb, p, old2)) != old2);
> +    else
> +      {
> +	do
> +	  {
> +	    /* Check that the top of the bin is not the record we are going to
> +	       add (i.e., double free).  */
> +	    if (__builtin_expect (old == p, 0))
> +	      malloc_printerr ("double free or corruption (fasttop)");
> +	    /* Check that size of fastbin chunk at the top is the same as
> +	       size of the chunk that we are adding.  We can dereference OLD
> +	       only if we have the lock, otherwise it might have already been
> +	       deallocated.  See use of OLD_IDX below for the actual check.  */
> +	    if (have_lock && old != NULL)
> +	      old_idx = fastbin_index (chunksize (old));
> +	    p->fd = old2 = old;
> +	  }
> +	while ((old = catomic_compare_and_exchange_val_rel (fb, p, old2))
> +		!= old2);
>  
> -    if (have_lock && old != NULL && __builtin_expect (old_idx != idx, 0))
> -      malloc_printerr ("invalid fastbin entry (free)");
> +	if (have_lock && old != NULL && __builtin_expect (old_idx != idx, 0))
> +	  malloc_printerr ("invalid fastbin entry (free)");
> +      }

OK.

>    }
>  
>    /*
>
diff mbox

Patch

diff --git a/malloc/malloc.c b/malloc/malloc.c
index 082c2b927727bff441cf48744265628d0bc40add..88cfd25766eba6787faeb7195d95b73d7a4637ab 100644
--- a/malloc/malloc.c
+++ b/malloc/malloc.c
@@ -243,6 +243,10 @@ 
 
 #include <malloc/malloc-internal.h>
 
+/* For SINGLE_THREAD_P.  */
+#include <sysdep-cancel.h>
+
+
 /*
   Debugging:
 
@@ -2909,7 +2913,7 @@  static __thread tcache_perthread_struct *tcache = NULL;
 
 /* Caller must ensure that we know tc_idx is valid and there's room
    for more chunks.  */
-static void
+static inline void
 tcache_put (mchunkptr chunk, size_t tc_idx)
 {
   tcache_entry *e = (tcache_entry *) chunk2mem (chunk);
@@ -2921,7 +2925,7 @@  tcache_put (mchunkptr chunk, size_t tc_idx)
 
 /* Caller must ensure that we know tc_idx is valid and there's
    available chunks to remove.  */
-static void *
+static inline void *
 tcache_get (size_t tc_idx)
 {
   tcache_entry *e = tcache->entries[tc_idx];
@@ -3030,24 +3034,34 @@  __libc_malloc (size_t bytes)
   DIAG_POP_NEEDS_COMMENT;
 #endif
 
-  arena_get (ar_ptr, bytes);
-
-  victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
-  /* Retry with another arena only if we were able to find a usable arena
-     before.  */
-  if (!victim && ar_ptr != NULL)
+  if (SINGLE_THREAD_P)
     {
-      LIBC_PROBE (memory_malloc_retry, 1, bytes);
-      ar_ptr = arena_get_retry (ar_ptr, bytes);
-      victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
+      victim = _int_malloc (&main_arena, bytes);
+      assert (!victim || chunk_is_mmapped (mem2chunk (victim)) ||
+	      &main_arena == arena_for_chunk (mem2chunk (victim)));
+      return victim;
     }
+  else
+    {
+      arena_get (ar_ptr, bytes);
 
-  if (ar_ptr != NULL)
-    __libc_lock_unlock (ar_ptr->mutex);
+      victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
+      /* Retry with another arena only if we were able to find a usable arena
+	 before.  */
+      if (!victim && ar_ptr != NULL)
+	{
+	  LIBC_PROBE (memory_malloc_retry, 1, bytes);
+	  ar_ptr = arena_get_retry (ar_ptr, bytes);
+	  victim = _int_malloc (ar_ptr, bytes);
+	}
+
+      if (ar_ptr != NULL)
+	__libc_lock_unlock (ar_ptr->mutex);
 
-  assert (!victim || chunk_is_mmapped (mem2chunk (victim)) ||
-          ar_ptr == arena_for_chunk (mem2chunk (victim)));
-  return victim;
+      assert (!victim || chunk_is_mmapped (mem2chunk (victim)) ||
+	      ar_ptr == arena_for_chunk (mem2chunk (victim)));
+      return victim;
+    }
 }
 libc_hidden_def (__libc_malloc)
 
@@ -3526,39 +3540,81 @@  _int_malloc (mstate av, size_t bytes)
 
   if ((unsigned long) (nb) <= (unsigned long) (get_max_fast ()))
     {
-      idx = fastbin_index (nb);
-      mfastbinptr *fb = &fastbin (av, idx);
-      mchunkptr pp = *fb;
-      REMOVE_FB (fb, victim, pp);
-      if (victim != 0)
-        {
-          if (__builtin_expect (fastbin_index (chunksize (victim)) != idx, 0))
-	    malloc_printerr ("malloc(): memory corruption (fast)");
-          check_remalloced_chunk (av, victim, nb);
-#if USE_TCACHE
-	  /* While we're here, if we see other chunks of the same size,
-	     stash them in the tcache.  */
-	  size_t tc_idx = csize2tidx (nb);
-	  if (tcache && tc_idx < mp_.tcache_bins)
+      if (SINGLE_THREAD_P)
+	{
+	  idx = fastbin_index (nb);
+	  mfastbinptr *fb = &fastbin (av, idx);
+	  mchunkptr next;
+	  victim = *fb;
+	  if (victim != NULL)
 	    {
-	      mchunkptr tc_victim;
-
-	      /* While bin not empty and tcache not full, copy chunks over.  */
-	      while (tcache->counts[tc_idx] < mp_.tcache_count
-		     && (pp = *fb) != NULL)
+	      size_t victim_idx = fastbin_index (chunksize (victim));
+	      next = victim->fd;
+	      if (__builtin_expect (victim_idx != idx, 0))
+		malloc_printerr ("malloc(): memory corruption (fast)");
+	      check_remalloced_chunk (av, victim, nb);
+#if USE_TCACHE
+	      /* While we're here, if we see other chunks of the same size,
+		 stash them in the tcache.  */
+	      size_t tc_idx = csize2tidx (nb);
+	      if (next != NULL && tcache && tc_idx < mp_.tcache_bins)
 		{
-		  REMOVE_FB (fb, tc_victim, pp);
-		  if (tc_victim != 0)
+		  mchunkptr tc_victim;
+
+		  /* While bin not empty and tcache not full, copy chunks.  */
+		  while (tcache->counts[tc_idx] < mp_.tcache_count)
 		    {
+		      tc_victim = next;
+		      next = tc_victim->fd;
 		      tcache_put (tc_victim, tc_idx);
-	            }
+		      if (next == NULL)
+			break;
+		    }
 		}
-	    }
 #endif
-          void *p = chunk2mem (victim);
-          alloc_perturb (p, bytes);
-          return p;
+	      *fb = next;
+	      void *p = chunk2mem (victim);
+	      alloc_perturb (p, bytes);
+	      return p;
+	    }
         }
+      else
+	{
+	  idx = fastbin_index (nb);
+	  mfastbinptr *fb = &fastbin (av, idx);
+	  mchunkptr pp = *fb;
+	  REMOVE_FB (fb, victim, pp);
+	  if (victim != 0)
+	    {
+	      size_t victim_idx = fastbin_index (chunksize (victim));
+	      if (__builtin_expect (victim_idx != idx, 0))
+		malloc_printerr ("malloc(): memory corruption (fast)");
+	      check_remalloced_chunk (av, victim, nb);
+#if USE_TCACHE
+	      /* While we're here, if we see other chunks of the same size,
+		 stash them in the tcache.  */
+	      size_t tc_idx = csize2tidx (nb);
+	      if (tcache && tc_idx < mp_.tcache_bins)
+		{
+		  mchunkptr tc_victim;
+
+		  /* While bin not empty and tcache not full, copy chunks.  */
+		  while (tcache->counts[tc_idx] < mp_.tcache_count
+			 && (pp = *fb) != NULL)
+		    {
+		      REMOVE_FB (fb, tc_victim, pp);
+		      if (tc_victim != 0)
+			{
+			  tcache_put (tc_victim, tc_idx);
+			}
+		    }
+		}
+#endif
+	      void *p = chunk2mem (victim);
+	      alloc_perturb (p, bytes);
+	      return p;
+	    }
+	}
     }
 
   /*
@@ -4158,24 +4214,36 @@  _int_free (mstate av, mchunkptr p, int have_lock)
     /* Atomically link P to its fastbin: P->FD = *FB; *FB = P;  */
     mchunkptr old = *fb, old2;
     unsigned int old_idx = ~0u;
-    do
+
+    if (SINGLE_THREAD_P && !have_lock)
       {
-	/* Check that the top of the bin is not the record we are going to add
-	   (i.e., double free).  */
 	if (__builtin_expect (old == p, 0))
 	  malloc_printerr ("double free or corruption (fasttop)");
-	/* Check that size of fastbin chunk at the top is the same as
-	   size of the chunk that we are adding.  We can dereference OLD
-	   only if we have the lock, otherwise it might have already been
-	   deallocated.  See use of OLD_IDX below for the actual check.  */
-	if (have_lock && old != NULL)
-	  old_idx = fastbin_index(chunksize(old));
-	p->fd = old2 = old;
+	p->fd = old;
+	*fb = p;
       }
-    while ((old = catomic_compare_and_exchange_val_rel (fb, p, old2)) != old2);
+    else
+      {
+	do
+	  {
+	    /* Check that the top of the bin is not the record we are going to
+	       add (i.e., double free).  */
+	    if (__builtin_expect (old == p, 0))
+	      malloc_printerr ("double free or corruption (fasttop)");
+	    /* Check that size of fastbin chunk at the top is the same as
+	       size of the chunk that we are adding.  We can dereference OLD
+	       only if we have the lock, otherwise it might have already been
+	       deallocated.  See use of OLD_IDX below for the actual check.  */
+	    if (have_lock && old != NULL)
+	      old_idx = fastbin_index (chunksize (old));
+	    p->fd = old2 = old;
+	  }
+	while ((old = catomic_compare_and_exchange_val_rel (fb, p, old2))
+		!= old2);
 
-    if (have_lock && old != NULL && __builtin_expect (old_idx != idx, 0))
-      malloc_printerr ("invalid fastbin entry (free)");
+	if (have_lock && old != NULL && __builtin_expect (old_idx != idx, 0))
+	  malloc_printerr ("invalid fastbin entry (free)");
+      }
   }
 
   /*