diff mbox series

[1/5] nptl: Fix pthread_cond_signal missing a sleeper (#BZ 25847)

Message ID 20210116204950.16434-1-malteskarupke@web.de
State New
Delegated to: Carlos O'Donell
Headers show
Series [1/5] nptl: Fix pthread_cond_signal missing a sleeper (#BZ 25847) | expand

Commit Message

Malte Skarupke Jan. 16, 2021, 8:49 p.m. UTC
There was a rare bug in pthread_cond_wait's handling of the case when
a signal was stolen because a waiter took a long time to leave
pthread_cond_wait.

I wrote about the bug here:
https://probablydance.com/2020/10/31/using-tla-in-the-real-world-to-understand-a-glibc-bug/

The bug was subtle and only happened in an edge-case of an edge-case
so rather than fixing it, I decided to remove the outer edge-case:
By broadening the scope of grefs, stealing of signals becomes
impossible. A signaling thread will always wait for all waiters to
leave pthread_cond_wait before closing a group, so now no waiter from
the past can come back and steal a signal from a future group.

This change is the minimal amount of changes necessary to fix the bug.
This leads to slightly slower performance, but the next two patches
in this series will undo most of that damage.
---
 nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c | 29 +++++++++++------------------
 1 file changed, 11 insertions(+), 18 deletions(-)

--
2.17.1

Comments

Torvald Riegel Jan. 18, 2021, 10:43 p.m. UTC | #1
On Sat, 2021-01-16 at 15:49 -0500, Malte Skarupke wrote:
> This change is the minimal amount of changes necessary to fix the
> bug.
> This leads to slightly slower performance, but the next two patches
> in this series will undo most of that damage.

Is this based on experiments, or an assumption based on reasoning?

Which kinds of workloads are you talking about (e.g., high vs. low
contention, ...).

> ---
>  nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c | 29 +++++++++++------------------
>  1 file changed, 11 insertions(+), 18 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c b/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c
> index 02d11c61db..0f50048c0b 100644
> --- a/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c
> +++ b/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c
> @@ -405,6 +405,10 @@ __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t
> *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
>    unsigned int g = wseq & 1;
>    uint64_t seq = wseq >> 1;
> 
> +  /* Acquire a group reference and use acquire MO for that so that
> we
> +     synchronize with the dummy read-modify-write in
> +     __condvar_quiesce_and_switch_g1 if we read from that.  */
> +  atomic_fetch_add_acquire (cond->__data.__g_refs + g, 2);

Please explain the choice of MO properly in comments, unless it's
obvious.  In this example, you just state that you want to have the
synchronize-with relation, but not why.

The comment you broke up has the second part ("In turn, ...") that
explains why we want to have it.  But have you checked that moving the
reference acquisition to earlier will still be correct, in particular
regarding MOs?  Your model didn't include MOs, IIRC, so this needs
reasoning.  We also want to make sure that our future selfs still can
reconstruct this understanding without having to start from scratch, so
we really need good comments.

>    /* Increase the waiter reference count.  Relaxed MO is sufficient
> because
>       we only need to synchronize when decrementing the reference
> count.  */
>    unsigned int flags = atomic_fetch_add_relaxed (&cond-
> >__data.__wrefs, 8);
> @@ -422,6 +426,7 @@ __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond,
> pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
>      {
>        __condvar_cancel_waiting (cond, seq, g, private);
>        __condvar_confirm_wakeup (cond, private);
> +      __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);
>        return err;
>      }
> 
> @@ -471,24 +476,14 @@ __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t
> *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
>  	    break;
> 
>  	  /* No signals available after spinning, so prepare to block.
> -	     We first acquire a group reference and use acquire MO for
> that so
> -	     that we synchronize with the dummy read-modify-write in
> -	     __condvar_quiesce_and_switch_g1 if we read from that.  In
> turn,
> -	     in this case this will make us see the closed flag on
> __g_signals
> -	     that designates a concurrent attempt to reuse the group's
> slot.
> -	     We use acquire MO for the __g_signals check to make the
> -	     __g1_start check work (see spinning above).
> -	     Note that the group reference acquisition will not mask
> the
> -	     release MO when decrementing the reference count because
> we use
> -	     an atomic read-modify-write operation and thus extend the
> release
> -	     sequence.  */

You lose this last sentence, but it matters when explaining this.

> -	  atomic_fetch_add_acquire (cond->__data.__g_refs + g, 2);
> +	     First check the closed flag on __g_signals that designates
> a
> +	     concurrent attempt to reuse the group's slot. We use
> acquire MO for
> +	     the __g_signals check to make the __g1_start check work
> (see
> +	     spinning above).  */

See above.

>  	  if (((atomic_load_acquire (cond->__data.__g_signals + g) & 1)
> != 0)
>  	      || (seq < (__condvar_load_g1_start_relaxed (cond) >> 1)))
>  	    {
> -	      /* Our group is closed.  Wake up any signalers that might
> be
> -		 waiting.  */
> -	      __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);
> +	      /* Our group is closed.  */
>  	      goto done;
>  	    }
> 
> @@ -508,7 +503,6 @@ __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond,
> pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
> 
>  	  if (__glibc_unlikely (err == ETIMEDOUT || err == EOVERFLOW))
>  	    {
> -	      __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);
>  	      /* If we timed out, we effectively cancel waiting.  Note
> that
>  		 we have decremented __g_refs before cancellation, so
> that a
>  		 deadlock between waiting for quiescence of our group
> in
> @@ -518,8 +512,6 @@ __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond,
> pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
>  	      result = err;
>  	      goto done;
>  	    }
> -	  else
> -	    __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);
> 
>  	  /* Reload signals.  See above for MO.  */
>  	  signals = atomic_load_acquire (cond->__data.__g_signals + g);
> @@ -602,6 +594,7 @@ __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond,
> pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
>       to allow for execution of pthread_cond_destroy while having
> acquired the
>       mutex.  */
>    __condvar_confirm_wakeup (cond, private);
> +  __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);

This is the wrong order.  After confirming the wakeup for cond_destroy,
the thread must not touch the condvar memory anymore (including reading
it because destruction could unmap it, for example; futex calls on it
are fine).
diff mbox series

Patch

diff --git a/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c b/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c
index 02d11c61db..0f50048c0b 100644
--- a/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c
+++ b/nptl/pthread_cond_wait.c
@@ -405,6 +405,10 @@  __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
   unsigned int g = wseq & 1;
   uint64_t seq = wseq >> 1;

+  /* Acquire a group reference and use acquire MO for that so that we
+     synchronize with the dummy read-modify-write in
+     __condvar_quiesce_and_switch_g1 if we read from that.  */
+  atomic_fetch_add_acquire (cond->__data.__g_refs + g, 2);
   /* Increase the waiter reference count.  Relaxed MO is sufficient because
      we only need to synchronize when decrementing the reference count.  */
   unsigned int flags = atomic_fetch_add_relaxed (&cond->__data.__wrefs, 8);
@@ -422,6 +426,7 @@  __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
     {
       __condvar_cancel_waiting (cond, seq, g, private);
       __condvar_confirm_wakeup (cond, private);
+      __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);
       return err;
     }

@@ -471,24 +476,14 @@  __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
 	    break;

 	  /* No signals available after spinning, so prepare to block.
-	     We first acquire a group reference and use acquire MO for that so
-	     that we synchronize with the dummy read-modify-write in
-	     __condvar_quiesce_and_switch_g1 if we read from that.  In turn,
-	     in this case this will make us see the closed flag on __g_signals
-	     that designates a concurrent attempt to reuse the group's slot.
-	     We use acquire MO for the __g_signals check to make the
-	     __g1_start check work (see spinning above).
-	     Note that the group reference acquisition will not mask the
-	     release MO when decrementing the reference count because we use
-	     an atomic read-modify-write operation and thus extend the release
-	     sequence.  */
-	  atomic_fetch_add_acquire (cond->__data.__g_refs + g, 2);
+	     First check the closed flag on __g_signals that designates a
+	     concurrent attempt to reuse the group's slot. We use acquire MO for
+	     the __g_signals check to make the __g1_start check work (see
+	     spinning above).  */
 	  if (((atomic_load_acquire (cond->__data.__g_signals + g) & 1) != 0)
 	      || (seq < (__condvar_load_g1_start_relaxed (cond) >> 1)))
 	    {
-	      /* Our group is closed.  Wake up any signalers that might be
-		 waiting.  */
-	      __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);
+	      /* Our group is closed.  */
 	      goto done;
 	    }

@@ -508,7 +503,6 @@  __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,

 	  if (__glibc_unlikely (err == ETIMEDOUT || err == EOVERFLOW))
 	    {
-	      __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);
 	      /* If we timed out, we effectively cancel waiting.  Note that
 		 we have decremented __g_refs before cancellation, so that a
 		 deadlock between waiting for quiescence of our group in
@@ -518,8 +512,6 @@  __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
 	      result = err;
 	      goto done;
 	    }
-	  else
-	    __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);

 	  /* Reload signals.  See above for MO.  */
 	  signals = atomic_load_acquire (cond->__data.__g_signals + g);
@@ -602,6 +594,7 @@  __pthread_cond_wait_common (pthread_cond_t *cond, pthread_mutex_t *mutex,
      to allow for execution of pthread_cond_destroy while having acquired the
      mutex.  */
   __condvar_confirm_wakeup (cond, private);
+  __condvar_dec_grefs (cond, g, private);

   /* Woken up; now re-acquire the mutex.  If this doesn't fail, return RESULT,
      which is set to ETIMEDOUT if a timeout occured, or zero otherwise.  */