diff mbox

[v6,4/*] Generic string search functions (strstr, strcasestr, memmem)

Message ID 20150603105214.GA31807@domone
State New
Headers show

Commit Message

Ondrej Bilka June 3, 2015, 10:52 a.m. UTC
Hi,

I collected strstr profile trace and it was surprising. The biggest one
is that strstr has in 26.5% needle of size 1. I expected that as gcc
already transforms strstr(x,"c") to strchr that it would be rare but no,
that made me optimize these cases as likely.

Then as I mentioned in tile optimization thread I somewhat though that
tolower will also ignore diacritics to make search also
diacritic-insensitive. That isn't case which allow me to optimize
strcasestr more.

I use that only two characters x for which tolower(x) == tolower(c)
are tolower(c) and toupper(c). This doesn't have to hold for all
encodings, I add _NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE to test that property.

For my computer there are following average values in bytes:

average size 24.06 needle size  4.31 comparisons  25.07 digraphs  0.10 trigraphs  0.08

calls   969516 succeed  40.7%

haystack aligned to 4 bytes  74.9% aligned to 8 bytes  71.7% aligned to 16 bytes  62.8%

needle aligned to 4 bytes  48.6% aligned to 8 bytes  29.7% aligned to 16 bytes  29.1%

needle found in n bytes: n <= 0:   6.2% n <= 1:   7.3% n <= 2:   9.7% n <= 3:  12.8% 
        n <= 4:  13.6% n <= 8:  16.4% n <= 16:  55.2% n <= 32: 72.3% n <= 64:  96.4%

needle size:   n <= 0:   1.7% n <= 1:   27.2% n <= 2:   60.3% n <= 3:  62.4%
  n <= 4:  64.2% n <= 8:  84.5% n <= 16:  98.8% n <= 32:  99.9% n <= 64: 100.0%


	* benchtests/bench-strcasestr.c: Remove simple_strcasestr.
        * string/test-strcasestr.c: Likewise.
        * locale/categories.def: Add _NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE.
        * locale/C-ctype.c: Likewise.
        * locale/langinfo.h (enum): Likewise.
        * locale/programs/ld-ctype.c: Detect _NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE.
        * string/memmem.c (struct): Use string skeleton.
        * string/strcasestr.c (struct): Likewise.
        * string/strstr.c (struct): Likewise.
	* sysdeps/generic/string_vector_search.h: New file.
diff mbox

Patch

diff --git a/benchtests/bench-strcasestr.c b/benchtests/bench-strcasestr.c
index 33531a4..b13efe0 100644
--- a/benchtests/bench-strcasestr.c
+++ b/benchtests/bench-strcasestr.c
@@ -20,11 +20,7 @@ 
 #define TEST_NAME "strcasestr"
 #include "bench-string.h"
 
-
-#define STRCASESTR simple_strcasestr
-#define NO_ALIAS
-#define __strncasecmp strncasecmp
-#include "../string/strcasestr.c"
+#include <ctype.h>
 
 
 static char *
@@ -53,7 +49,6 @@  stupid_strcasestr (const char *s1, const char *s2)
 typedef char *(*proto_t) (const char *, const char *);
 
 IMPL (stupid_strcasestr, 0)
-IMPL (simple_strcasestr, 0)
 IMPL (strcasestr, 1)
 
 
@@ -86,10 +81,9 @@  do_test (size_t align1, size_t align2, size_t len1, size_t len2,
   static const char d[] = "1234567890abcxyz";
 #define dl (sizeof (d) - 1)
   char *ss2 = s2;
-  for (size_t l = len2; l > 0; l = l > dl ? l - dl : 0)
+  for (size_t l = 0; l < len2; l++)
     {
-      size_t t = l > dl ? dl : l;
-      ss2 = mempcpy (ss2, d, t);
+      ss2[l] = ((unsigned)rand())%16 + 1;
     }
   s2[len2] = '\0';
 
diff --git a/locale/C-ctype.c b/locale/C-ctype.c
index 7c616d8..61ee2a7 100644
--- a/locale/C-ctype.c
+++ b/locale/C-ctype.c
@@ -528,7 +528,7 @@  _nl_C_LC_CTYPE_width attribute_hidden =
 };
 
 /* Number of fields with fixed meanings, starting at 0.  */
-#define NR_FIXED 72
+#define NR_FIXED 73
 /* Number of class fields, starting at CLASS_OFFSET.  */
 #define NR_CLASSES 12
 /* Number of map fields, starting at MAP_OFFSET.  */
@@ -669,6 +669,8 @@  const struct __locale_data _nl_C_LC_CTYPE attribute_hidden =
     { .word = 0 },
     /* _NL_CTYPE_NONASCII_CASE */
     { .word = 0 },
+    /* _NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE */
+    { .word = 0 },
     /* NR_CLASSES wctype_tables */
     { .string = (const char *) _nl_C_LC_CTYPE_class_upper.header },
     { .string = (const char *) _nl_C_LC_CTYPE_class_lower.header },
diff --git a/locale/categories.def b/locale/categories.def
index 045489d..338ca36 100644
--- a/locale/categories.def
+++ b/locale/categories.def
@@ -135,6 +135,7 @@  DEFINE_CATEGORY
   DEFINE_ELEMENT (_NL_CTYPE_TRANSLIT_IGNORE, "ctype-translit-ignore", std, string)
   DEFINE_ELEMENT (_NL_CTYPE_MAP_TO_NONASCII, "map-to-nonascii", std, word)
   DEFINE_ELEMENT (_NL_CTYPE_NONASCII_CASE, "nonascii-case", std, word)
+  DEFINE_ELEMENT (_NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE, "nonbijective-case", std, word)
   ), _nl_postload_ctype)
 
 
diff --git a/locale/langinfo.h b/locale/langinfo.h
index ffc5c7f..093b840 100644
--- a/locale/langinfo.h
+++ b/locale/langinfo.h
@@ -335,6 +335,7 @@  enum
   _NL_CTYPE_TRANSLIT_IGNORE,
   _NL_CTYPE_MAP_TO_NONASCII,
   _NL_CTYPE_NONASCII_CASE,
+  _NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE,
   _NL_CTYPE_EXTRA_MAP_1,
   _NL_CTYPE_EXTRA_MAP_2,
   _NL_CTYPE_EXTRA_MAP_3,
diff --git a/locale/programs/ld-ctype.c b/locale/programs/ld-ctype.c
index e8690f3..3968809 100644
--- a/locale/programs/ld-ctype.c
+++ b/locale/programs/ld-ctype.c
@@ -227,6 +227,8 @@  struct locale_ctype_t
 
   uint32_t to_nonascii;
   uint32_t nonascii_case;
+  uint32_t nonbijective_case;
+
 
   /* The arrays for the binary representation.  */
   char_class_t *ctype_b;
@@ -691,6 +693,13 @@  character <SP> not defined in character map")));
 	  || ctype->map256_collection[1][cnt] != cnt)
 	ctype->nonascii_case = 1;
 
+
+  for (cnt = 0; cnt < 256; ++cnt)
+    if (ctype->map256_collection[0][ctype->map256_collection[1][cnt]] != cnt &&
+	ctype->map256_collection[1][ctype->map256_collection[0][cnt]] != cnt)
+      ctype->nonbijective_case = 1;
+
+
   /* Now that the tests are done make sure the name array contains all
      characters which are handled in the WIDTH section of the
      character set definition file.  */
@@ -1063,6 +1072,9 @@  ctype_output (struct localedef_t *locale, const struct charmap_t *charmap,
 
 	  CTYPE_UINT32 (_NL_CTYPE_NONASCII_CASE, ctype->nonascii_case);
 
+	  CTYPE_UINT32 (_NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE, ctype->nonbijective_case);
+
+
 	  case _NL_ITEM_INDEX (_NL_CTYPE_INDIGITS_MB_LEN):
 	    add_locale_uint32 (&file, ctype->mbdigits_act / 10);
 	    break;
diff --git a/string/memmem.c b/string/memmem.c
index 8a81f65..9add37e 100644
--- a/string/memmem.c
+++ b/string/memmem.c
@@ -35,6 +35,45 @@ 
 
 #undef memmem
 
+#include <string_vector.h>
+
+struct cmask
+{
+  unsigned long int n0, n1;
+  size_t needle_size;
+};
+#define CUSTOM_CMASK
+#define CMASK_PARAM struct cmask cmask
+
+#define LOOKAHEAD 1
+#define EXPRESSION_NOCARRY(x, cmask) \
+ ( bytes_equal_nocarry (BYTE (0), cmask.n0) 				\
+   &  bytes_equal_nocarry (BYTE (1), cmask.n1))
+
+/* We calculate mask, not look for first byte and carry could corrupt
+   following bytes. Only possible optimization would be use
+   contains_zero (x) as it must end there. */
+#define EXPRESSION(x, cmask) EXPRESSION_NOCARRY(x, cmask)
+
+static int
+check (char *s, char *n, unsigned long *rent, struct cmask cmask)
+{
+  /* First two characters were already checked by vector loop.  */
+  size_t i = 2;
+
+  while (i < cmask.needle_size && s[i] == n[i])
+    i++;
+
+  if (i == cmask.needle_size)
+    return 1;
+
+  rent += i + 10;
+  return 0;
+}
+
+#define CHECK_N
+#include <string_vector_search.h>
+
 /* Return the first occurrence of NEEDLE in HAYSTACK.  Return HAYSTACK
    if NEEDLE_LEN is 0, otherwise NULL if NEEDLE is not found in
    HAYSTACK.  */
@@ -46,17 +85,43 @@  __memmem (const void *haystack_start, size_t haystack_len,
      not an array of 'char' values.  See ISO C 99 section 6.2.6.1.  */
   const unsigned char *haystack = (const unsigned char *) haystack_start;
   const unsigned char *needle = (const unsigned char *) needle_start;
+  char *ret;
+  unsigned char *n = (unsigned char *) needle;
 
   if (needle_len == 0)
     /* The first occurrence of the empty string is deemed to occur at
        the beginning of the string.  */
     return (void *) haystack;
 
+  if (needle_len == 1)
+    return memchr (haystack, n[0], haystack_len);
+
   /* Sanity check, otherwise the loop might search through the whole
      memory.  */
   if (__glibc_unlikely (haystack_len < needle_len))
     return NULL;
 
+  if (__BYTE_ORDER == __LITTLE_ENDIAN)
+    {
+      struct cmask cmask;
+      cmask.n0 = broadcast (n[0]);
+      cmask.n1 = broadcast (n[1]);
+      cmask.needle_size = needle_len;
+      size_t search_size = haystack_len - needle_len + 1;
+      if (vector_search ((char *) haystack, (char *) needle,
+		         cmask, search_size, &ret))
+        return (void *) ret;
+      else
+        {
+	  haystack_len -= (char *) ret - (char *) haystack;
+          haystack = (const unsigned char *) ret;
+
+          if (ret == NULL || haystack_len < needle_len)
+            return NULL;
+        }
+    }
+
+
   /* Use optimizations in memchr when possible, to reduce the search
      size of haystack using a linear algorithm with a smaller
      coefficient.  However, avoid memchr for long needles, since we
diff --git a/string/strcasestr.c b/string/strcasestr.c
index 400fab8..db7f1cd 100644
--- a/string/strcasestr.c
+++ b/string/strcasestr.c
@@ -57,6 +57,60 @@ 
 #define STRCASESTR __strcasestr
 #endif
 
+/* A initial fast vectorized loop looking for first digraph.  */
+
+#include <string_vector.h>
+
+struct cmask
+{
+  vector_int l0, u0, l1, u1;
+};
+#define CUSTOM_CMASK
+#define CMASK_PARAM struct cmask cmask
+
+  /* We use trick that for when character is in ascii and character
+     0 <= c <= 127 could be caselessly equal only one of characters
+     tolower (c), toupper (c) or a character x in range 128 <= x <= 255
+     As these are exactly characters have highest bit set to 1 we adjust
+     a expression from strstr and filter lower bits by anding with high_bits.
+   */
+
+#define LOOKAHEAD 1
+#define BYTE_EXPRESSION(x, l, u) \
+  ( bytes_equal_nocarry (x, l) 				\
+  | bytes_equal_nocarry (x, u))				
+
+#define EXPRESSION_NOCARRY(x, cmask) (( \
+ ( BYTE_EXPRESSION (BYTE(0), cmask.l0, cmask.u0)		  \
+ & BYTE_EXPRESSION (BYTE(1), cmask.l1, cmask.u1) 		  \
+ ) | contains_zero_nocarry (BYTE (1))))
+
+/* We calculate mask, not look for first byte and carry could corrupt
+   following bytes. Only possible optimization would be use
+   contains_zero (x) as it must end there. */
+#define EXPRESSION(x, cmask) EXPRESSION_NOCARRY (x, cmask)
+
+static int
+check (char *s, char *n, unsigned long *rent, struct cmask cmask)
+{
+  size_t i = 2;
+
+  if (!s[1])
+    return 1;
+
+  while (n[i] && tolower (s[i]) == tolower (n[i]))
+    i++;
+
+  if (!n[i])
+    return 1;
+
+  rent += i + 10;
+  return 0;
+}
+
+#include <string_vector_search.h>
+
+#include "../locale/localeinfo.h"
 
 /* Find the first occurrence of NEEDLE in HAYSTACK, using
    case-insensitive comparison.  This function gives unspecified
@@ -66,9 +120,46 @@  STRCASESTR (const char *haystack_start, const char *needle_start)
 {
   const char *haystack = haystack_start;
   const char *needle = needle_start;
+  char *ret;
   size_t needle_len; /* Length of NEEDLE.  */
   size_t haystack_len; /* Known minimum length of HAYSTACK.  */
   bool ok = true; /* True if NEEDLE is prefix of HAYSTACK.  */
+  unsigned char *n = (unsigned char *) needle;
+
+  __locale_t loc = _NL_CURRENT_LOCALE;
+  struct __locale_data *ctype = loc->__locales[LC_CTYPE];
+  int bijective = !ctype->values[_NL_ITEM_INDEX (_NL_CTYPE_NONBIJECTIVE_CASE)].word;
+
+  if (!n[0])
+    return (char *) haystack;
+  if (!haystack[0])
+    return NULL;
+
+  /* TODO jump to special case of strpbrk with size 2.  */
+  if (!n[1] && bijective)
+    {
+      char ac[3];
+      ac[0]=tolower(n[0]);
+      ac[1]=toupper(n[0]);
+      ac[2]=0;
+      return strpbrk (haystack, ac);
+    }
+
+  if (__BYTE_ORDER == __LITTLE_ENDIAN && bijective)
+    {
+      struct cmask cmask;
+      cmask.l0 = broadcast (tolower(n[0]));
+      cmask.u0 = broadcast (toupper(n[0]));
+      cmask.l1 = broadcast (tolower(n[1]));
+      cmask.u1 = broadcast (toupper(n[1]));
+
+      if (vector_search ((char *) haystack, (char *) needle, cmask,\
+			 0, &ret))
+        return (ret[1] != '\0') ? ret : NULL;
+      else
+        haystack = ret;
+    }
+
 
   /* Determine length of NEEDLE, and in the process, make sure
      HAYSTACK is at least as long (no point processing all of a long
diff --git a/string/strstr.c b/string/strstr.c
index 045e878..f1047e9 100644
--- a/string/strstr.c
+++ b/string/strstr.c
@@ -45,6 +45,48 @@ 
 #define STRSTR strstr
 #endif
 
+#include <string_vector.h>
+
+struct cmask
+{
+  vector_int n0, n1;
+};
+#define CUSTOM_CMASK
+#define CMASK_PARAM struct cmask cmask
+
+#define LOOKAHEAD 1
+#define EXPRESSION_NOCARRY(x, cmask) (\
+ ( bytes_equal_nocarry (BYTE (0), cmask.n0)				\
+   & bytes_equal_nocarry (BYTE (1), cmask.n1))				\
+ | contains_zero_nocarry (BYTE (1)))
+
+/* We calculate mask, not look for first byte and carry could corrupt
+   following bytes. Only possible optimization would be use
+   contains_zero (x) as it must end there. */
+#define EXPRESSION(x, cmask) EXPRESSION_NOCARRY(x, cmask)
+
+static int
+check (char *s, char *n, unsigned long *rent, struct cmask cmask)
+{
+  /* First two characters were already checked by vector loop.  */
+  size_t i = 2;
+  if (!s[1])
+    return 1;
+
+  while (n[i] && s[i] == n[i])
+    i++;
+
+  if (!n[i])
+    return 1;
+
+  rent += i + 10;
+  return 0;
+}
+
+#include <string_vector_search.h>
+
+
+
 /* Return the first occurrence of NEEDLE in HAYSTACK.  Return HAYSTACK
    if NEEDLE is empty, otherwise NULL if NEEDLE is not found in
    HAYSTACK.  */
@@ -53,9 +95,34 @@  STRSTR (const char *haystack_start, const char *needle_start)
 {
   const char *haystack = haystack_start;
   const char *needle = needle_start;
+  char *ret;
   size_t needle_len; /* Length of NEEDLE.  */
   size_t haystack_len; /* Known minimum length of HAYSTACK.  */
   bool ok = true; /* True if NEEDLE is prefix of HAYSTACK.  */
+  unsigned char *n = (unsigned char *) needle;
+
+  if (!n[0])
+    return (char *) haystack;
+  if (!n[1])
+    return strchr (haystack, n[0]);
+
+  if (!haystack[0])
+    return NULL;
+
+  if (__BYTE_ORDER == __LITTLE_ENDIAN)
+    {
+      struct cmask cmask;
+      cmask.n0 =  broadcast (n[0]);
+      cmask.n1 =  broadcast (n[1]);
+
+      if (vector_search ((char *) haystack, (char *) needle, cmask,\
+			 0, &ret))
+        return ret[1] != '\0' ? ret : NULL;
+      else
+        haystack = ret;
+    }
+
+
 
   /* Determine length of NEEDLE, and in the process, make sure
      HAYSTACK is at least as long (no point processing all of a long
diff --git a/string/test-strcasestr.c b/string/test-strcasestr.c
index 489dc84..f8a7ee9 100644
--- a/string/test-strcasestr.c
+++ b/string/test-strcasestr.c
@@ -21,12 +21,7 @@ 
 #define TEST_NAME "strcasestr"
 #include "test-string.h"
 
-
-#define STRCASESTR simple_strcasestr
-#define NO_ALIAS
-#define __strncasecmp strncasecmp
-#include "strcasestr.c"
-
+#include <ctype.h>
 
 static char *
 stupid_strcasestr (const char *s1, const char *s2)
@@ -54,7 +49,6 @@  stupid_strcasestr (const char *s1, const char *s2)
 typedef char *(*proto_t) (const char *, const char *);
 
 IMPL (stupid_strcasestr, 0)
-IMPL (simple_strcasestr, 0)
 IMPL (strcasestr, 1)
 
 
diff --git a/sysdeps/generic/string_vector_search.h b/sysdeps/generic/string_vector_search.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..263fc25
--- /dev/null
+++ b/sysdeps/generic/string_vector_search.h
@@ -0,0 +1,89 @@ 
+/* Algorithm to select a faster string search implementation.
+   Copyright (C) 2015 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+   This file is part of the GNU C Library.
+
+   The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+   modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
+   License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
+   version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
+
+   The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
+   Lesser General Public License for more details.
+
+   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
+   License along with the GNU C Library; if not, see
+   <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */
+
+/*
+   For string search algorithms there are two ways how you could look
+   at performance.
+
+   From practical standpoint a naive algorithm is baseline.  Most theoretical
+   algorithms (BW, KMP, ...) are slower because they need to do expensive 
+   random access.  This makes prohibitive constant cost per character while naive
+   algorithm is linear on random inputs as most of time you don't match string.
+   Also potential gains are nonexistent, user supplies needle so you could be
+   happy when its at least 8 characters long and most haystacks are less than 64
+   bytes large.
+
+   On other hand we need to ensure a linear worst-case of our algorithm.
+
+   We do that with bit of accounting. We count number of comparisons and when
+   it exceeds a size of haystack times some constant we switch to two-way
+   algorithm with guaranteed linear time.
+
+   Main performance boost is gained by vectorizing naive algorithm checks.
+   We will check in parallel if first digraph matches. That should be quite rare,
+  in english most frequent digraph is th with frequency around 1%.
+
+   Then after each digraph found we face decision if to keep looking for
+   digraphs or switch to two-way algorithm. These are covered as common
+   problem in online algorithm setting: buy-or-rent problem.
+   A precomputation in two-way algorithm with needle size n takes
+   around same time as 20 character comparisons so in worst case a two-way
+   algorithm would be twenty times slower than naive for haystacks of size n+1.
+   A solution would be pay higher rent rate until it accumulates to buy cost.
+   Then we would in worst case be twice slower than selecting optimal
+   implementation from start.
+
+   That would work except it needs strlen (needle) which is unnecessary
+   in practice. To show that haystack cannot match needle it suffices to know
+   that there is no leading triplet from needle in haystack. As unless there
+   was a planted needle in haystack and false positive is unlikely we likely
+   don't have to inspect more than three or four characters from needle. Also
+   correct accounting takes time so we approximate cost based on number of
+   comparisons and vector searchs.
+
+ */
+
+#include <string_vector_skeleton.h>
+
+static int
+vector_search (char *haystack, char *needle, CMASK_PARAM,
+	       size_t check_n, char **ret)
+{
+  char *s = haystack;
+  char *end = s + check_n;
+  unsigned long rent = 0;
+  while (rent < 256 + (s - haystack))
+    {
+      s = string_skeleton (s, cmask, end - s);
+      if (s == NULL)
+	{
+	  *ret = s;
+	  return 1;
+	}
+      if (check (s, needle, &rent, cmask))
+	{
+	  *ret = s;
+	  return 1;
+	}
+      else
+	s++;
+    }
+  /* Superlinear behaviour detected, switch to two-way algorithm.  */
+  *ret = s;
+  return 0;
+}