Patchwork [3/3] Refactor atfork handlers

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Submitter Adhemerval Zanella Netto
Date Feb. 7, 2018, 1:09 p.m.
Message ID <1518008967-8310-3-git-send-email-adhemerval.zanella@linaro.org>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/25854/
State New
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Comments

Adhemerval Zanella Netto - Feb. 7, 2018, 1:09 p.m.
Current implementation (sysdeps/nptl/fork.c) replicates the atfork
handlers list backward to invoke the child handlers after fork/clone
syscall.

The internal atfork handlers is implemented as a single-linked list
so a lock-free algorithm can be used, trading fork mulithread call
performance for some code complexity and dynamic stack allocation
(since the backwards list should not fail).

This patch refactor it to use a dynarary instead of a linked list.
It simplifies the external variables need to be exported and also
the internal atfork handler member definition.

The downside is a serialization of fork call in multithread, since to
operate on the dynarray the internal lock should be used.  However
as noted by Florian, it already acquires external locks for malloc
and libio so it is already hitting some lock contention.  Besides,
posix_spawn should be faster and more scalable to run external programs
in multithread environments.

Checked on x86_64-linux-gnu.

	* nptl/Makefile (routines): Remove unregister-atfork.
	* nptl/register-atfork.c (fork_handler_pool): Remove variable.
	(fork_handler_alloc): Remove function.
	(fork_handlers, fork_handler_init): New variables.
	(__fork_lock): Rename to atfork_lock.
	(__register_atforki, __unregister_atfork, libc_freeres_fn): Rewrite
	to use a dynamic array to add/remove atfork handlers.
	* sysdeps/nptl/fork.c (__libc_fork): Likewise.
	* sysdeps/nptl/fork.h (__fork_lock, __fork_handlers, __linkin_atfork):
	Remove declaration.
	(fork_handler): Remove next, refcntr, and need_signal member.
	(__run_fork_handler_type): New enum.
	(__run_fork_handlers): New prototype.
	* sysdeps/nptl/libc-lockP.h (__libc_atfork): Remove declaration.
---
 ChangeLog                 |  15 +++++
 nptl/Makefile             |   2 +-
 nptl/register-atfork.c    | 146 +++++++++++++++++++---------------------------
 sysdeps/nptl/fork.c       |  96 +-----------------------------
 sysdeps/nptl/fork.h       |  31 +++++-----
 sysdeps/nptl/libc-lockP.h |   2 -
 6 files changed, 97 insertions(+), 195 deletions(-)
Florian Weimer - Feb. 7, 2018, 3:07 p.m.
On 02/07/2018 02:09 PM, Adhemerval Zanella wrote:
> +  for (size_t i = 0; i < fork_handler_list_size (&fork_handlers); i++)
> +    if (fork_handler_list_at (&fork_handlers, i)->dso_handle == dso_handle)
> +      {
> +        fork_handler_list_remove (&fork_handlers, i);
> +        break;
> +      }

I think there can be multiple fork handlers for one dso_handle, and this 
loop only removes one of them.

Thanks,
Florian

Patch

diff --git a/nptl/Makefile b/nptl/Makefile
index 6fc2c8b..be7ee3e 100644
--- a/nptl/Makefile
+++ b/nptl/Makefile
@@ -30,7 +30,7 @@  install-lib-ldscripts := libpthread.so
 
 routines = alloca_cutoff forward libc-lowlevellock libc-cancellation \
 	   libc-cleanup libc_pthread_init libc_multiple_threads \
-	   register-atfork unregister-atfork pthread_self
+	   register-atfork pthread_self
 shared-only-routines = forward
 
 # We need to provide certain routines for compatibility with existing
diff --git a/nptl/register-atfork.c b/nptl/register-atfork.c
index f309cec..0bc2fe9 100644
--- a/nptl/register-atfork.c
+++ b/nptl/register-atfork.c
@@ -22,123 +22,97 @@ 
 #include <fork.h>
 #include <atomic.h>
 
+#define DYNARRAY_ELEMENT           struct fork_handler
+#define DYNARRAY_STRUCT            fork_handler_list
+#define DYNARRAY_PREFIX            fork_handler_list_
+#define DYNARRAY_INITIAL_SIZE      48
+#include <malloc/dynarray-skeleton.c>
 
-struct fork_handler *__fork_handlers;
-
-/* Lock to protect allocation and deallocation of fork handlers.  */
-int __fork_lock = LLL_LOCK_INITIALIZER;
-
-
-/* Number of pre-allocated handler entries.  */
-#define NHANDLER 48
-
-/* Memory pool for fork handler structures.  */
-static struct fork_handler_pool
-{
-  struct fork_handler_pool *next;
-  struct fork_handler mem[NHANDLER];
-} fork_handler_pool;
-
-
-static struct fork_handler *
-fork_handler_alloc (void)
-{
-  struct fork_handler_pool *runp = &fork_handler_pool;
-  struct fork_handler *result = NULL;
-  unsigned int i;
-
-  do
-    {
-      /* Search for an empty entry.  */
-      for (i = 0; i < NHANDLER; ++i)
-	if (runp->mem[i].refcntr == 0)
-	  goto found;
-    }
-  while ((runp = runp->next) != NULL);
-
-  /* We have to allocate a new entry.  */
-  runp = (struct fork_handler_pool *) calloc (1, sizeof (*runp));
-  if (runp != NULL)
-    {
-      /* Enqueue the new memory pool into the list.  */
-      runp->next = fork_handler_pool.next;
-      fork_handler_pool.next = runp;
-
-      /* We use the last entry on the page.  This means when we start
-	 searching from the front the next time we will find the first
-	 entry unused.  */
-      i = NHANDLER - 1;
-
-    found:
-      result = &runp->mem[i];
-      result->refcntr = 1;
-      result->need_signal = 0;
-    }
-
-  return result;
-}
+static struct fork_handler_list fork_handlers;
+static bool fork_handler_init = false;
 
+static int atfork_lock = LLL_LOCK_INITIALIZER;
 
 int
 __register_atfork (void (*prepare) (void), void (*parent) (void),
 		   void (*child) (void), void *dso_handle)
 {
-  /* Get the lock to not conflict with other allocations.  */
-  lll_lock (__fork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
+  lll_lock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
 
-  struct fork_handler *newp = fork_handler_alloc ();
+  if (!fork_handler_init)
+    {
+      fork_handler_list_init (&fork_handlers);
+      fork_handler_init = true;
+    }
 
+  struct fork_handler *newp = fork_handler_list_emplace (&fork_handlers);
   if (newp != NULL)
     {
-      /* Initialize the new record.  */
       newp->prepare_handler = prepare;
       newp->parent_handler = parent;
       newp->child_handler = child;
       newp->dso_handle = dso_handle;
-
-      __linkin_atfork (newp);
     }
 
   /* Release the lock.  */
-  lll_unlock (__fork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
+  lll_unlock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
 
   return newp == NULL ? ENOMEM : 0;
 }
 libc_hidden_def (__register_atfork)
 
-
 void
-attribute_hidden
-__linkin_atfork (struct fork_handler *newp)
+__unregister_atfork (void *dso_handle)
 {
-  do
-    newp->next = __fork_handlers;
-  while (catomic_compare_and_exchange_bool_acq (&__fork_handlers,
-						newp, newp->next) != 0);
-}
+  lll_lock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
 
+  for (size_t i = 0; i < fork_handler_list_size (&fork_handlers); i++)
+    if (fork_handler_list_at (&fork_handlers, i)->dso_handle == dso_handle)
+      {
+        fork_handler_list_remove (&fork_handlers, i);
+        break;
+      }
 
-libc_freeres_fn (free_mem)
+  lll_unlock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
+}
+
+void
+__run_fork_handlers (enum __run_fork_handler_type who)
 {
-  /* Get the lock to not conflict with running forks.  */
-  lll_lock (__fork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
+  struct fork_handler *runp;
 
-  /* No more fork handlers.  */
-  __fork_handlers = NULL;
+  if (who == atfork_run_prepare)
+    {
+      lll_lock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
+      size_t sl = fork_handler_list_size (&fork_handlers);
+      for (size_t i = sl; i > 0; i--)
+	{
+	  runp = fork_handler_list_at (&fork_handlers, i - 1);
+	  if (runp->prepare_handler != NULL)
+	    runp->prepare_handler ();
+	}
+    }
+  else
+    {
+      size_t sl = fork_handler_list_size (&fork_handlers);
+      for (size_t i = 0; i < sl; i++)
+	{
+	  runp = fork_handler_list_at (&fork_handlers, i);
+	  if (who == atfork_run_child && runp->child_handler)
+	    runp->child_handler ();
+	  else if (who == atfork_run_parent && runp->parent_handler)
+	    runp->parent_handler ();
+	}
+      lll_unlock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
+    }
+}
 
-  /* Free eventually allocated memory blocks for the object pool.  */
-  struct fork_handler_pool *runp = fork_handler_pool.next;
 
-  memset (&fork_handler_pool, '\0', sizeof (fork_handler_pool));
+libc_freeres_fn (free_mem)
+{
+  lll_lock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
 
-  /* Release the lock.  */
-  lll_unlock (__fork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
+  fork_handler_list_free (&fork_handlers);
 
-  /* We can free the memory after releasing the lock.  */
-  while (runp != NULL)
-    {
-      struct fork_handler_pool *oldp = runp;
-      runp = runp->next;
-      free (oldp);
-    }
+  lll_unlock (atfork_lock, LLL_PRIVATE);
 }
diff --git a/sysdeps/nptl/fork.c b/sysdeps/nptl/fork.c
index 0061ee0..ec56a82 100644
--- a/sysdeps/nptl/fork.c
+++ b/sysdeps/nptl/fork.c
@@ -48,11 +48,6 @@  pid_t
 __libc_fork (void)
 {
   pid_t pid;
-  struct used_handler
-  {
-    struct fork_handler *handler;
-    struct used_handler *next;
-  } *allp = NULL;
 
   /* Determine if we are running multiple threads.  We skip some fork
      handlers in the single-thread case, to make fork safer to use in
@@ -60,60 +55,7 @@  __libc_fork (void)
      but our current fork implementation is not.  */
   bool multiple_threads = THREAD_GETMEM (THREAD_SELF, header.multiple_threads);
 
-  /* Run all the registered preparation handlers.  In reverse order.
-     While doing this we build up a list of all the entries.  */
-  struct fork_handler *runp;
-  while ((runp = __fork_handlers) != NULL)
-    {
-      /* Make sure we read from the current RUNP pointer.  */
-      atomic_full_barrier ();
-
-      unsigned int oldval = runp->refcntr;
-
-      if (oldval == 0)
-	/* This means some other thread removed the list just after
-	   the pointer has been loaded.  Try again.  Either the list
-	   is empty or we can retry it.  */
-	continue;
-
-      /* Bump the reference counter.  */
-      if (atomic_compare_and_exchange_bool_acq (&__fork_handlers->refcntr,
-						oldval + 1, oldval))
-	/* The value changed, try again.  */
-	continue;
-
-      /* We bumped the reference counter for the first entry in the
-	 list.  That means that none of the following entries will
-	 just go away.  The unloading code works in the order of the
-	 list.
-
-	 While executing the registered handlers we are building a
-	 list of all the entries so that we can go backward later on.  */
-      while (1)
-	{
-	  /* Execute the handler if there is one.  */
-	  if (runp->prepare_handler != NULL)
-	    runp->prepare_handler ();
-
-	  /* Create a new element for the list.  */
-	  struct used_handler *newp
-	    = (struct used_handler *) alloca (sizeof (*newp));
-	  newp->handler = runp;
-	  newp->next = allp;
-	  allp = newp;
-
-	  /* Advance to the next handler.  */
-	  runp = runp->next;
-	  if (runp == NULL)
-	    break;
-
-	  /* Bump the reference counter for the next entry.  */
-	  atomic_increment (&runp->refcntr);
-	}
-
-      /* We are done.  */
-      break;
-    }
+  __run_fork_handlers (atfork_run_prepare);
 
   /* If we are not running multiple threads, we do not have to
      preserve lock state.  If fork runs from a signal handler, only
@@ -192,29 +134,7 @@  __libc_fork (void)
       __rtld_lock_initialize (GL(dl_load_lock));
 
       /* Run the handlers registered for the child.  */
-      while (allp != NULL)
-	{
-	  if (allp->handler->child_handler != NULL)
-	    allp->handler->child_handler ();
-
-	  /* Note that we do not have to wake any possible waiter.
-	     This is the only thread in the new process.  The count
-	     may have been bumped up by other threads doing a fork.
-	     We reset it to 1, to avoid waiting for non-existing
-	     thread(s) to release the count.  */
-	  allp->handler->refcntr = 1;
-
-	  /* XXX We could at this point look through the object pool
-	     and mark all objects not on the __fork_handlers list as
-	     unused.  This is necessary in case the fork() happened
-	     while another thread called dlclose() and that call had
-	     to create a new list.  */
-
-	  allp = allp->next;
-	}
-
-      /* Initialize the fork lock.  */
-      __fork_lock = LLL_LOCK_INITIALIZER;
+      __run_fork_handlers (atfork_run_child);
     }
   else
     {
@@ -229,17 +149,7 @@  __libc_fork (void)
 	}
 
       /* Run the handlers registered for the parent.  */
-      while (allp != NULL)
-	{
-	  if (allp->handler->parent_handler != NULL)
-	    allp->handler->parent_handler ();
-
-	  if (atomic_decrement_and_test (&allp->handler->refcntr)
-	      && allp->handler->need_signal)
-	    futex_wake (&allp->handler->refcntr, 1, FUTEX_PRIVATE);
-
-	  allp = allp->next;
-	}
+      __run_fork_handlers (atfork_run_parent);
     }
 
   return pid;
diff --git a/sysdeps/nptl/fork.h b/sysdeps/nptl/fork.h
index f0330cc..6eab61c 100644
--- a/sysdeps/nptl/fork.h
+++ b/sysdeps/nptl/fork.h
@@ -24,29 +24,37 @@  extern unsigned long int __fork_generation attribute_hidden;
 /* Pointer to the fork generation counter in the thread library.  */
 extern unsigned long int *__fork_generation_pointer attribute_hidden;
 
-/* Lock to protect allocation and deallocation of fork handlers.  */
-extern int __fork_lock attribute_hidden;
-
 /* Elements of the fork handler lists.  */
 struct fork_handler
 {
-  struct fork_handler *next;
   void (*prepare_handler) (void);
   void (*parent_handler) (void);
   void (*child_handler) (void);
   void *dso_handle;
-  unsigned int refcntr;
-  int need_signal;
 };
 
-/* The single linked list of all currently registered for handlers.  */
-extern struct fork_handler *__fork_handlers attribute_hidden;
-
-
 /* Function to call to unregister fork handlers.  */
 extern void __unregister_atfork (void *dso_handle) attribute_hidden;
 #define UNREGISTER_ATFORK(dso_handle) __unregister_atfork (dso_handle)
 
+enum __run_fork_handler_type
+{
+  atfork_run_prepare,
+  atfork_run_child,
+  atfork_run_parent
+};
+
+/* Run the atfork handlers and lock/unlock the internal lock depending
+   of the WHO argument:
+
+   - atfork_run_prepare: run all the PREPARE_HANDLER in reverse order of
+			 insertion and locks the internal lock.
+   - atfork_run_child: run all the CHILD_HANDLER and unlocks the internal
+		       lock.
+   - atfork_run_parent: run all the PARENT_HANDLER and unlocks the internal
+			lock.  */
+extern void __run_fork_handlers (enum __run_fork_handler_type who)
+  attribute_hidden;
 
 /* C library side function to register new fork handlers.  */
 extern int __register_atfork (void (*__prepare) (void),
@@ -54,6 +62,3 @@  extern int __register_atfork (void (*__prepare) (void),
 			      void (*__child) (void),
 			      void *dso_handle);
 libc_hidden_proto (__register_atfork)
-
-/* Add a new element to the fork list.  */
-extern void __linkin_atfork (struct fork_handler *newp) attribute_hidden;
diff --git a/sysdeps/nptl/libc-lockP.h b/sysdeps/nptl/libc-lockP.h
index 8539bbf..989fefa 100644
--- a/sysdeps/nptl/libc-lockP.h
+++ b/sysdeps/nptl/libc-lockP.h
@@ -319,8 +319,6 @@  __libc_cleanup_routine (struct __pthread_cleanup_frame *f)
 /* Register handlers to execute before and after `fork'.  Note that the
    last parameter is NULL.  The handlers registered by the libc are
    never removed so this is OK.  */
-#define __libc_atfork(PREPARE, PARENT, CHILD) \
-  __register_atfork (PREPARE, PARENT, CHILD, NULL)
 extern int __register_atfork (void (*__prepare) (void),
 			      void (*__parent) (void),
 			      void (*__child) (void),