Patchwork v11 Improves __ieee754_exp() performance by greater than 5x on sparc/x86.

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Submitter Patrick McGehearty
Date Jan. 29, 2018, 9:44 p.m.
Message ID <1517262265-79445-1-git-send-email-patrick.mcgehearty@oracle.com>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/25674/
State New
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Comments

Patrick McGehearty - Jan. 29, 2018, 9:44 p.m.
New with this version:
Adds updates sparc and x86_64 libm-test-ulps files (1 ulp for
various exp tests). Rewrite of full comment to reflect current
state of patch.

Summary of patch rationale

These changes will be active for all platforms that don't provide
their own exp() routines. They will also be active for ieee754
versions of ccos, ccosh, cosh, csin, csinh, sinh, exp10, gamma, and
erf.

Typical performance gains are 2x on Sparc s7 and 5x on x86_64.
The former code included a slow path to assure no 1 ulp errors
that could be 50-200 times slower than the normal path.
Informal testing suggests perhaps 1 in 200 values might invoke
the slow path.

Using the glibc_perf tests:
      sparc (nsec)    x86 (nsec)
      old     new     old     new
max   18180   936    4863     275
min     399    96      15      15
mean   5499   419    1336      24

Glibc correctness tests for exp() and expf() were run. Within the test
suite 1 input value was found to cause a 1 ulp difference when
"FE_TONEAREST" rounding mode is set. No differences in exp()
were seen for the tested values for the other rounding modes.

When tested over a range of 10 million input values, the new code
gets a 1 ulp error approximately 1.6 times per 1000 values.
That rate was similar for all four rounding modes.
The patch uses a 64 entry scaling table. 32, 128, and 256 entry
tables were also examined with the following error rates:

Table    1 ulp/
entries  1000
  32      2.9
  64      1.6
 128      1.0
 256      0.6

Each table entry takes 16 bytes meaning a 256 entry table requires
4K bytes. That large of a table was thought to possibly have an
impact in overall performance by displacing other data in an exp()
heavy application.

Further optimization is possible in the handling of rounding
modes. Using get_rounding_mode and libc_fesetround() instead of
SET_RESTORE_ROUND provides a measurable gain for Sparc.
Unfortunately, on x86, one works with sse fp unit rounding mode while
the other works on x87 fp unit rounding mode.  Adding libc_fegetround,
libc_fegetroundf and libc_fegetroundl to to match libc_fesetround()
should not be too large a task but outside the scope of this patch.
---
 manual/probes.texi                          |   14 -
 math/Makefile                               |    2 +-
 sysdeps/generic/math_private.h              |    1 -
 sysdeps/i386/fpu/slowexp.c                  |    1 -
 sysdeps/ia64/fpu/slowexp.c                  |    1 -
 sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c              |  341 +++++++++++++--------------
 sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_pow.c              |    2 +-
 sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/eexp.tbl             |  255 ++++++++++++++++++++
 sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c            |   86 -------
 sysdeps/m68k/m680x0/fpu/slowexp.c           |    1 -
 sysdeps/powerpc/power4/fpu/Makefile         |    1 -
 sysdeps/sparc/fpu/libm-test-ulps            |    2 +
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/libm-test-ulps           |    2 +
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/Makefile       |    9 +-
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-avx.c    |    1 -
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma.c    |    1 -
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma4.c   |    1 -
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-avx.c  |    9 -
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma.c  |    9 -
 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma4.c |    9 -
 20 files changed, 430 insertions(+), 318 deletions(-)
 delete mode 100644 sysdeps/i386/fpu/slowexp.c
 delete mode 100644 sysdeps/ia64/fpu/slowexp.c
 create mode 100644 sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/eexp.tbl
 delete mode 100644 sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c
 delete mode 100644 sysdeps/m68k/m680x0/fpu/slowexp.c
 delete mode 100644 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-avx.c
 delete mode 100644 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma.c
 delete mode 100644 sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma4.c
Szabolcs Nagy - Feb. 2, 2018, 2:40 p.m.
On 29/01/18 21:44, Patrick McGehearty wrote:
> New with this version:
> Adds updates sparc and x86_64 libm-test-ulps files (1 ulp for
> various exp tests). Rewrite of full comment to reflect current
> state of patch.
> 
> Summary of patch rationale
> 
> These changes will be active for all platforms that don't provide
> their own exp() routines. They will also be active for ieee754
> versions of ccos, ccosh, cosh, csin, csinh, sinh, exp10, gamma, and
> erf.
> 
> Typical performance gains are 2x on Sparc s7 and 5x on x86_64.
> The former code included a slow path to assure no 1 ulp errors
> that could be 50-200 times slower than the normal path.
> Informal testing suggests perhaps 1 in 200 values might invoke
> the slow path.
> 
> Using the glibc_perf tests:
>        sparc (nsec)    x86 (nsec)
>        old     new     old     new
> max   18180   936    4863     275
> min     399    96      15      15
> mean   5499   419    1336      24
> 

i tested this patch on aarch64 against the current code
with the slow path removed and the later was about 10%
faster on both my throughput and latency benchmarks.
(i also removed the rounding mode settings in both cases
as that can be avoided at least on aarch64)

so i suggest just removing the slow path first, which
should have good enough error rate and similar performance.

i did some testing and i think it's possible to do the
common case >30% faster with similar table size and around
0.501 ulp error, with a slower path for values close to
overflow/underflow (at least on aarch64, which has
convert-to-nearest-int instruction that does not depend on
rounding mode, i'll see if it can be done in a generic way)
Joseph Myers - Feb. 2, 2018, 3:33 p.m.
On Fri, 2 Feb 2018, Szabolcs Nagy wrote:

> (i also removed the rounding mode settings in both cases
> as that can be avoided at least on aarch64)

There is or was certainly code in the existing exp that gives completely 
wrong results in non-default rounding modes (that was bug 3976) - e.g. 
using precision-extension techniques that require round-to-nearest - 
though I don't know if that applies to the fast case code or if it's only 
in code for slow cases (or code for slow cases but using other rounding 
modes results in the slow cases getting used much more).
Szabolcs Nagy - Feb. 2, 2018, 4:35 p.m.
On 02/02/18 15:33, Joseph Myers wrote:
> On Fri, 2 Feb 2018, Szabolcs Nagy wrote:
> 
>> (i also removed the rounding mode settings in both cases
>> as that can be avoided at least on aarch64)
> 
> There is or was certainly code in the existing exp that gives completely
> wrong results in non-default rounding modes (that was bug 3976) - e.g.
> using precision-extension techniques that require round-to-nearest -
> though I don't know if that applies to the fast case code or if it's only
> in code for slow cases (or code for slow cases but using other rounding
> modes results in the slow cases getting used much more).
> 

that's because in the arg reduction rounding is done like

     y = x * log2e.x + three51.x;
     bexp = y - three51.x;
     ...
     y = t + three33.x;
     base = y - three33.x;

but if instead of x+shift-shift a rounding mode independent
instruction is used then there should be no huge error,
this should be possible at least on aarch64, but even on
other targets a rounding mode independent trunc(x+0.5) may
be faster than using fenv.

i think that exp can be implemented without fenv access
and with acceptable error in non-nearest rounding.
Patrick McGehearty - Feb. 7, 2018, 7:19 p.m.
On 2/2/2018 8:40 AM, Szabolcs Nagy wrote:
> On 29/01/18 21:44, Patrick McGehearty wrote:
>> New with this version:
>> Adds updates sparc and x86_64 libm-test-ulps files (1 ulp for
>> various exp tests). Rewrite of full comment to reflect current
>> state of patch.
>>
>> Summary of patch rationale
>>
>> These changes will be active for all platforms that don't provide
>> their own exp() routines. They will also be active for ieee754
>> versions of ccos, ccosh, cosh, csin, csinh, sinh, exp10, gamma, and
>> erf.
>>
>> Typical performance gains are 2x on Sparc s7 and 5x on x86_64.
>> The former code included a slow path to assure no 1 ulp errors
>> that could be 50-200 times slower than the normal path.
>> Informal testing suggests perhaps 1 in 200 values might invoke
>> the slow path.
>>
>> Using the glibc_perf tests:
>>        sparc (nsec)    x86 (nsec)
>>        old     new     old     new
>> max   18180   936    4863     275
>> min     399    96      15      15
>> mean   5499   419    1336      24
>>
>
> i tested this patch on aarch64 against the current code
> with the slow path removed and the later was about 10%
> faster on both my throughput and latency benchmarks.
> (i also removed the rounding mode settings in both cases
> as that can be avoided at least on aarch64)
>
Removing the rounding mode settings certainly makes a big
difference in performance. When I started, my base code did
not include the rounding mode changes. Unfortunately,
that also generated many more test failures in the non-round-to-nearest
settings, including failures in other ieee754 functions that used
ieee754_exp(). Most platforms do not have a way to avoid the
rounding mode settings, making that option unavailable
for most users of the generic IEEE754 code.

Has there been a serious discussion in the past of to what degree
of accuracy glibc/libm should support other rounding modes than
round-to-nearest?  If a concensus decision were made that
other rounding modes were allowed slightly greater ulp diffs,
we could remove all the rounding mode checks and get
faster code. Failing that concensus, I don't see how we
can bypass the rounding mode checks for the generic code.


> so i suggest just removing the slow path first, which
> should have good enough error rate and similar performance.

I'll look into comparing removing the slow path on Sparc and
x86, including running my own "10 million values" test to
get a sense of how frequently the slow path is triggered
and what the largest relative error that test observes.
I'll also run timing tests.

May be a little while before I have something to report.

> i did some testing and i think it's possible to do the
> common case >30% faster with similar table size and around
> 0.501 ulp error, with a slower path for values close to
> overflow/underflow (at least on aarch64, which has
> convert-to-nearest-int instruction that does not depend on
> rounding mode, i'll see if it can be done in a generic way)

- patrick

Patch

diff --git a/manual/probes.texi b/manual/probes.texi
index 8ab6756..f8ae64b 100644
--- a/manual/probes.texi
+++ b/manual/probes.texi
@@ -258,20 +258,6 @@  Unless explicitly mentioned otherwise, a precision of 1 implies 24 bits of
 precision in the mantissa of the multiple precision number.  Hence, a precision
 level of 32 implies 768 bits of precision in the mantissa.
 
-@deftp Probe slowexp_p6 (double @var{$arg1}, double @var{$arg2})
-This probe is triggered when the @code{exp} function is called with an
-input that results in multiple precision computation with precision
-6.  Argument @var{$arg1} is the input value and @var{$arg2} is the
-computed output.
-@end deftp
-
-@deftp Probe slowexp_p32 (double @var{$arg1}, double @var{$arg2})
-This probe is triggered when the @code{exp} function is called with an
-input that results in multiple precision computation with precision
-32.  Argument @var{$arg1} is the input value and @var{$arg2} is the
-computed output.
-@end deftp
-
 @deftp Probe slowpow_p10 (double @var{$arg1}, double @var{$arg2}, double @var{$arg3}, double @var{$arg4})
 This probe is triggered when the @code{pow} function is called with
 inputs that result in multiple precision computation with precision
diff --git a/math/Makefile b/math/Makefile
index 4c8703c..46e33a6 100644
--- a/math/Makefile
+++ b/math/Makefile
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@  type-ldouble-yes := ldouble
 # double support
 type-double-suffix :=
 type-double-routines := branred doasin dosincos halfulp mpa mpatan2	\
-		       mpatan mpexp mplog mpsqrt mptan sincos32 slowexp	\
+		       mpatan mpexp mplog mpsqrt mptan sincos32	\
 		       slowpow sincostab k_rem_pio2
 
 # float support
diff --git a/sysdeps/generic/math_private.h b/sysdeps/generic/math_private.h
index e4b9d86..1cf7e70 100644
--- a/sysdeps/generic/math_private.h
+++ b/sysdeps/generic/math_private.h
@@ -262,7 +262,6 @@  extern double __sin32 (double __x, double __res, double __res1);
 extern double __cos32 (double __x, double __res, double __res1);
 extern double __mpsin (double __x, double __dx, bool __range_reduce);
 extern double __mpcos (double __x, double __dx, bool __range_reduce);
-extern double __slowexp (double __x);
 extern double __slowpow (double __x, double __y, double __z);
 extern void __docos (double __x, double __dx, double __v[]);
 
diff --git a/sysdeps/i386/fpu/slowexp.c b/sysdeps/i386/fpu/slowexp.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 1cc8931..0000000
--- a/sysdeps/i386/fpu/slowexp.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1 +0,0 @@ 
-/* Not needed.  */
diff --git a/sysdeps/ia64/fpu/slowexp.c b/sysdeps/ia64/fpu/slowexp.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 1cc8931..0000000
--- a/sysdeps/ia64/fpu/slowexp.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1 +0,0 @@ 
-/* Not needed.  */
diff --git a/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c b/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c
index 3d2560c..5ba4411 100644
--- a/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c
+++ b/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c
@@ -1,3 +1,4 @@ 
+/* EXP function - Compute double precision exponential */
 /*
  * IBM Accurate Mathematical Library
  * written by International Business Machines Corp.
@@ -23,7 +24,7 @@ 
 /*           exp1                                                          */
 /*                                                                         */
 /* FILES NEEDED:dla.h endian.h mpa.h mydefs.h uexp.h                       */
-/*              mpa.c mpexp.x slowexp.c                                    */
+/*              mpa.c mpexp.x                                              */
 /*                                                                         */
 /* An ultimate exp routine. Given an IEEE double machine number x          */
 /* it computes the correctly rounded (to nearest) value of e^x             */
@@ -32,207 +33,197 @@ 
 /*                                                                         */
 /***************************************************************************/
 
+/*  IBM exp(x) replaced by following exp(x) in 2018. IBM exp1(x,xx) remains.  */
+/* exp(x)
+   Hybrid algorithm of Peter Tang's Table driven method (for large
+   arguments) and an accurate table (for small arguments).
+   Written by K.C. Ng, November 1988.
+   Revised by Patrick McGehearty, Jan 2018 to use j/64 instead of j/32
+   and to round with FE_TONEAREST if another rounding mode is set on entry.
+   Method (large arguments):
+	1. Argument Reduction: given the input x, find r and integer k
+	   and j such that
+	             x = (k+j/64)*(ln2) + r,  |r| <= (1/128)*ln2
+
+	2. exp(x) = 2^k * (2^(j/64) + 2^(j/64)*expm1(r))
+	   a. expm1(r) is approximated by a polynomial:
+	      expm1(r) ~ r + t1*r^2 + t2*r^3 + ... + t5*r^6
+	      Here t1 = 1/2 exactly.
+	   b. 2^(j/64) is represented to twice double precision
+	      as TBL[2j]+TBL[2j+1].
+
+   Note: If divide were fast enough, we could use another approximation
+	 in 2.a:
+	      expm1(r) ~ (2r)/(2-R), R = r - r^2*(t1 + t2*r^2)
+	      (for the same t1 and t2 as above)
+
+   Special cases:
+	exp(INF) is INF, exp(NaN) is NaN;
+	exp(-INF)=  0;
+	for finite argument, only exp(0)=1 is exact.
+
+   Accuracy:
+	According to an error analysis, the error is always less than
+	an ulp (unit in the last place).  The largest errors observed
+	are less than 0.55 ulp for normal results and less than 0.75 ulp
+	for subnormal results.
+
+   Misc. info.
+	For IEEE double
+		if x >  7.09782712893383973096e+02 then exp(x) overflow
+		if x < -7.45133219101941108420e+02 then exp(x) underflow.  */
+
 #include <math.h>
+#include <math-svid-compat.h>
+#include <math_private.h>
+#include <errno.h>
 #include "endian.h"
 #include "uexp.h"
+#include "uexp.tbl"
 #include "mydefs.h"
 #include "MathLib.h"
-#include "uexp.tbl"
-#include <math_private.h>
 #include <fenv.h>
 #include <float.h>
 
-#ifndef SECTION
-# define SECTION
-#endif
+extern double __ieee754_exp (double);
+
+#include "eexp.tbl"
+
+static const double
+  half = 0.5,
+  one = 1.0;
 
-double __slowexp (double);
 
-/* An ultimate exp routine. Given an IEEE double machine number x it computes
-   the correctly rounded (to nearest) value of e^x.  */
 double
-SECTION
-__ieee754_exp (double x)
+__ieee754_exp (double x_arg)
 {
-  double bexp, t, eps, del, base, y, al, bet, res, rem, cor;
-  mynumber junk1, junk2, binexp = {{0, 0}};
-  int4 i, j, m, n, ex;
+  double z, t;
   double retval;
-
+  int hx, ix, k, j, m;
+  union
   {
-    SET_RESTORE_ROUND (FE_TONEAREST);
-
-    junk1.x = x;
-    m = junk1.i[HIGH_HALF];
-    n = m & hugeint;
-
-    if (n > smallint && n < bigint)
-      {
-	y = x * log2e.x + three51.x;
-	bexp = y - three51.x;	/*  multiply the result by 2**bexp        */
-
-	junk1.x = y;
-
-	eps = bexp * ln_two2.x;	/* x = bexp*ln(2) + t - eps               */
-	t = x - bexp * ln_two1.x;
-
-	y = t + three33.x;
-	base = y - three33.x;	/* t rounded to a multiple of 2**-18      */
-	junk2.x = y;
-	del = (t - base) - eps;	/*  x = bexp*ln(2) + base + del           */
-	eps = del + del * del * (p3.x * del + p2.x);
-
-	binexp.i[HIGH_HALF] = (junk1.i[LOW_HALF] + 1023) << 20;
-
-	i = ((junk2.i[LOW_HALF] >> 8) & 0xfffffffe) + 356;
-	j = (junk2.i[LOW_HALF] & 511) << 1;
-
-	al = coar.x[i] * fine.x[j];
-	bet = ((coar.x[i] * fine.x[j + 1] + coar.x[i + 1] * fine.x[j])
-	       + coar.x[i + 1] * fine.x[j + 1]);
-
-	rem = (bet + bet * eps) + al * eps;
-	res = al + rem;
-	cor = (al - res) + rem;
-	if (res == (res + cor * err_0))
+    int i_part[2];
+    double x;
+  } xx;
+  union
+  {
+    int y_part[2];
+    double y;
+  } yy;
+  xx.x = x_arg;
+
+  ix = xx.i_part[HIGH_HALF];
+  hx = ix & ~0x80000000;
+
+  if (hx < 0x3ff0a2b2)
+    {				/* |x| < 3/2 ln 2 */
+      if (hx < 0x3f862e42)
+	{			/* |x| < 1/64 ln 2 */
+	  if (hx < 0x3ed00000)
+	    {			/* |x| < 2^-18 */
+	      if (hx < 0x3e300000)
+		{
+		  {
+		    SET_RESTORE_ROUND (FE_TONEAREST);
+		    retval = one + xx.x;
+		  }
+		  return retval;
+		}
+	      {
+		SET_RESTORE_ROUND (FE_TONEAREST);
+		retval = one + xx.x * (one + half * xx.x);
+	      }
+	      return retval;
+	    }
 	  {
-	    retval = res * binexp.x;
-	    goto ret;
+	    SET_RESTORE_ROUND (FE_TONEAREST);
+	    t = xx.x * xx.x;
+	    yy.y = xx.x + (t * (half + xx.x * t2)
+			     + (t * t) * (t3 + xx.x * t4 + t * t5));
+	    retval = one + yy.y;
 	  }
-	else
-	  {
-	    retval = __slowexp (x);
-	    goto ret;
-	  }			/*if error is over bound */
-      }
+	  return retval;
+	}
 
-    if (n <= smallint)
+      /* Find the multiple of 2^-6 nearest x.  */
+      k = hx >> 20;
+      j = (0x00100000 | (hx & 0x000fffff)) >> (0x40c - k);
+      j = (j - 1) & ~1;
+      if (ix < 0)
+	j += 134;
       {
-	retval = 1.0;
-	goto ret;
+	SET_RESTORE_ROUND (FE_TONEAREST);
+	z = xx.x - TBL2[j];
+	t = z * z;
+	yy.y = z + (t * (half + (z * t2))
+		    + (t * t) * (t3 + z * t4 + t * t5));
+	retval = TBL2[j + 1] + TBL2[j + 1] * yy.y;
       }
+      return retval;
+    }
 
-    if (n >= badint)
-      {
-	if (n > infint)
-	  {
-	    retval = x + x;
-	    goto ret;
-	  }			/* x is NaN */
-	if (n < infint)
-	  {
-	    if (x > 0)
-	      goto ret_huge;
-	    else
-	      goto ret_tiny;
-	  }
-	/* x is finite,  cause either overflow or underflow  */
-	if (junk1.i[LOW_HALF] != 0)
-	  {
-	    retval = x + x;
-	    goto ret;
-	  }			/*  x is NaN  */
-	retval = (x > 0) ? inf.x : zero;	/* |x| = inf;  return either inf or 0 */
-	goto ret;
-      }
+  if (hx >= 0x40862e42)
+    {				/* x is large, infinite, or nan.  */
+      if (hx >= 0x7ff00000)
+	{
+	  if (ix == 0xfff00000 && xx.i_part[LOW_HALF] == 0)
+	    return zero;	/* exp(-inf) = 0.  */
+	  return (xx.x * xx.x);	/* exp(nan/inf) is nan or inf.  */
+	}
+      if (xx.x > threshold1)
+	{			/* Set overflow error condition.  */
+	  retval = hhuge * hhuge;
+	  return retval;
+	}
+      if (-xx.x > threshold2)
+	{			/* Set underflow error condition.  */
+	  double force_underflow = tiny * tiny;
+	  math_force_eval (force_underflow);
+	  retval = force_underflow;
+	  return retval;
+	}
+    }
 
-    y = x * log2e.x + three51.x;
-    bexp = y - three51.x;
-    junk1.x = y;
-    eps = bexp * ln_two2.x;
-    t = x - bexp * ln_two1.x;
-    y = t + three33.x;
-    base = y - three33.x;
-    junk2.x = y;
-    del = (t - base) - eps;
-    eps = del + del * del * (p3.x * del + p2.x);
-    i = ((junk2.i[LOW_HALF] >> 8) & 0xfffffffe) + 356;
-    j = (junk2.i[LOW_HALF] & 511) << 1;
-    al = coar.x[i] * fine.x[j];
-    bet = ((coar.x[i] * fine.x[j + 1] + coar.x[i + 1] * fine.x[j])
-	   + coar.x[i + 1] * fine.x[j + 1]);
-    rem = (bet + bet * eps) + al * eps;
-    res = al + rem;
-    cor = (al - res) + rem;
-    if (m >> 31)
-      {
-	ex = junk1.i[LOW_HALF];
-	if (res < 1.0)
-	  {
-	    res += res;
-	    cor += cor;
-	    ex -= 1;
-	  }
-	if (ex >= -1022)
-	  {
-	    binexp.i[HIGH_HALF] = (1023 + ex) << 20;
-	    if (res == (res + cor * err_0))
-	      {
-		retval = res * binexp.x;
-		goto ret;
-	      }
-	    else
-	      {
-		retval = __slowexp (x);
-		goto check_uflow_ret;
-	      }			/*if error is over bound */
-	  }
-	ex = -(1022 + ex);
-	binexp.i[HIGH_HALF] = (1023 - ex) << 20;
-	res *= binexp.x;
-	cor *= binexp.x;
-	eps = 1.0000000001 + err_0 * binexp.x;
-	t = 1.0 + res;
-	y = ((1.0 - t) + res) + cor;
-	res = t + y;
-	cor = (t - res) + y;
-	if (res == (res + eps * cor))
-	  {
-	    binexp.i[HIGH_HALF] = 0x00100000;
-	    retval = (res - 1.0) * binexp.x;
-	    goto check_uflow_ret;
-	  }
-	else
-	  {
-	    retval = __slowexp (x);
-	    goto check_uflow_ret;
-	  }			/*   if error is over bound    */
-      check_uflow_ret:
-	if (retval < DBL_MIN)
-	  {
-	    double force_underflow = tiny * tiny;
-	    math_force_eval (force_underflow);
-	  }
-	if (retval == 0)
-	  goto ret_tiny;
-	goto ret;
-      }
+  {
+    SET_RESTORE_ROUND (FE_TONEAREST);
+    t = invln2_64 * xx.x;
+    if (ix < 0)
+      t -= half;
     else
-      {
-	binexp.i[HIGH_HALF] = (junk1.i[LOW_HALF] + 767) << 20;
-	if (res == (res + cor * err_0))
-	  retval = res * binexp.x * t256.x;
-	else
-	  retval = __slowexp (x);
-	if (isinf (retval))
-	  goto ret_huge;
-	else
-	  goto ret;
-      }
+      t += half;
+    k = (int) t;
+    j = (k & 0x3f) << 1;
+    m = k >> 6;
+    z = (xx.x - k * ln2_64hi) - k * ln2_64lo;
+
+    /* z is now in primary range.  */
+    t = z * z;
+    yy.y = z + (t * (half + z * t2) + (t * t) * (t3 + z * t4 + t * t5));
+    yy.y = TBL[j] + (TBL[j + 1] + TBL[j] * yy.y);
   }
-ret:
-  return retval;
-
- ret_huge:
-  return hhuge * hhuge;
 
- ret_tiny:
-  return tiny * tiny;
+  if (m < -1021)
+    {
+      yy.y_part[HIGH_HALF] += (m + 54) << 20;
+      retval = twom54 * yy.y;
+      if (retval < DBL_MIN)
+	{
+	  double force_underflow = tiny * tiny;
+	  math_force_eval (force_underflow);
+	}
+      return retval;
+    }
+  yy.y_part[HIGH_HALF] += m << 20;
+  return yy.y;
 }
 #ifndef __ieee754_exp
 strong_alias (__ieee754_exp, __exp_finite)
 #endif
 
+#ifndef SECTION
+# define SECTION
+#endif
+
 /* Compute e^(x+xx).  The routine also receives bound of error of previous
    calculation.  If after computing exp the error exceeds the allowed bounds,
    the routine returns a non-positive number.  Otherwise it returns the
diff --git a/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_pow.c b/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_pow.c
index f6e5fcd..c410b04 100644
--- a/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_pow.c
+++ b/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_pow.c
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@ 
 /*             log1                                                        */
 /*             checkint                                                    */
 /* FILES NEEDED: dla.h endian.h mpa.h mydefs.h                             */
-/*               halfulp.c mpexp.c mplog.c slowexp.c slowpow.c mpa.c       */
+/*               halfulp.c mpexp.c mplog.c slowpow.c mpa.c                 */
 /*                          uexp.c  upow.c				   */
 /*               root.tbl uexp.tbl upow.tbl                                */
 /* An ultimate power routine. Given two IEEE double machine numbers y,x    */
diff --git a/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/eexp.tbl b/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/eexp.tbl
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a4eef22
--- /dev/null
+++ b/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/eexp.tbl
@@ -0,0 +1,255 @@ 
+/* EXP function tables - for use in computing double precision exponential
+   Copyright (C) 2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
+   This file is part of the GNU C Library.
+
+   The GNU C Library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
+   modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
+   License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
+   version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
+
+   The GNU C Library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+   but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+   MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
+   Lesser General Public License for more details.
+
+   You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
+   License along with the GNU C Library; if not, see
+   <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */
+
+
+/*
+   TBL[2*j] is 2**(j/64), rounded to nearest.
+   TBL[2*j+1] is 2**(j/64) - TBL[2*j], rounded to nearest.
+   These values are used to approximate exp(x) using the formula
+   given in the comments for e_exp.c.  */
+
+static const double TBL[128] = {
+    0x1.0000000000000p+0,  0x0.0000000000000p+0,
+    0x1.02c9a3e778061p+0, -0x1.19083535b085dp-56,
+    0x1.059b0d3158574p+0,  0x1.d73e2a475b465p-55,
+    0x1.0874518759bc8p+0,  0x1.186be4bb284ffp-57,
+    0x1.0b5586cf9890fp+0,  0x1.8a62e4adc610bp-54,
+    0x1.0e3ec32d3d1a2p+0,  0x1.03a1727c57b52p-59,
+    0x1.11301d0125b51p+0, -0x1.6c51039449b3ap-54,
+    0x1.1429aaea92de0p+0, -0x1.32fbf9af1369ep-54,
+    0x1.172b83c7d517bp+0, -0x1.19041b9d78a76p-55,
+    0x1.1a35beb6fcb75p+0,  0x1.e5b4c7b4968e4p-55,
+    0x1.1d4873168b9aap+0,  0x1.e016e00a2643cp-54,
+    0x1.2063b88628cd6p+0,  0x1.dc775814a8495p-55,
+    0x1.2387a6e756238p+0,  0x1.9b07eb6c70573p-54,
+    0x1.26b4565e27cddp+0,  0x1.2bd339940e9d9p-55,
+    0x1.29e9df51fdee1p+0,  0x1.612e8afad1255p-55,
+    0x1.2d285a6e4030bp+0,  0x1.0024754db41d5p-54,
+    0x1.306fe0a31b715p+0,  0x1.6f46ad23182e4p-55,
+    0x1.33c08b26416ffp+0,  0x1.32721843659a6p-54,
+    0x1.371a7373aa9cbp+0, -0x1.63aeabf42eae2p-54,
+    0x1.3a7db34e59ff7p+0, -0x1.5e436d661f5e3p-56,
+    0x1.3dea64c123422p+0,  0x1.ada0911f09ebcp-55,
+    0x1.4160a21f72e2ap+0, -0x1.ef3691c309278p-58,
+    0x1.44e086061892dp+0,  0x1.89b7a04ef80d0p-59,
+    0x1.486a2b5c13cd0p+0,  0x1.3c1a3b69062f0p-56,
+    0x1.4bfdad5362a27p+0,  0x1.d4397afec42e2p-56,
+    0x1.4f9b2769d2ca7p+0, -0x1.4b309d25957e3p-54,
+    0x1.5342b569d4f82p+0, -0x1.07abe1db13cadp-55,
+    0x1.56f4736b527dap+0,  0x1.9bb2c011d93adp-54,
+    0x1.5ab07dd485429p+0,  0x1.6324c054647adp-54,
+    0x1.5e76f15ad2148p+0,  0x1.ba6f93080e65ep-54,
+    0x1.6247eb03a5585p+0, -0x1.383c17e40b497p-54,
+    0x1.6623882552225p+0, -0x1.bb60987591c34p-54,
+    0x1.6a09e667f3bcdp+0, -0x1.bdd3413b26456p-54,
+    0x1.6dfb23c651a2fp+0, -0x1.bbe3a683c88abp-57,
+    0x1.71f75e8ec5f74p+0, -0x1.16e4786887a99p-55,
+    0x1.75feb564267c9p+0, -0x1.0245957316dd3p-54,
+    0x1.7a11473eb0187p+0, -0x1.41577ee04992fp-55,
+    0x1.7e2f336cf4e62p+0,  0x1.05d02ba15797ep-56,
+    0x1.82589994cce13p+0, -0x1.d4c1dd41532d8p-54,
+    0x1.868d99b4492edp+0, -0x1.fc6f89bd4f6bap-54,
+    0x1.8ace5422aa0dbp+0,  0x1.6e9f156864b27p-54,
+    0x1.8f1ae99157736p+0,  0x1.5cc13a2e3976cp-55,
+    0x1.93737b0cdc5e5p+0, -0x1.75fc781b57ebcp-57,
+    0x1.97d829fde4e50p+0, -0x1.d185b7c1b85d1p-54,
+    0x1.9c49182a3f090p+0,  0x1.c7c46b071f2bep-56,
+    0x1.a0c667b5de565p+0, -0x1.359495d1cd533p-54,
+    0x1.a5503b23e255dp+0, -0x1.d2f6edb8d41e1p-54,
+    0x1.a9e6b5579fdbfp+0,  0x1.0fac90ef7fd31p-54,
+    0x1.ae89f995ad3adp+0,  0x1.7a1cd345dcc81p-54,
+    0x1.b33a2b84f15fbp+0, -0x1.2805e3084d708p-57,
+    0x1.b7f76f2fb5e47p+0, -0x1.5584f7e54ac3bp-56,
+    0x1.bcc1e904bc1d2p+0,  0x1.23dd07a2d9e84p-55,
+    0x1.c199bdd85529cp+0,  0x1.11065895048ddp-55,
+    0x1.c67f12e57d14bp+0,  0x1.2884dff483cadp-54,
+    0x1.cb720dcef9069p+0,  0x1.503cbd1e949dbp-56,
+    0x1.d072d4a07897cp+0, -0x1.cbc3743797a9cp-54,
+    0x1.d5818dcfba487p+0,  0x1.2ed02d75b3707p-55,
+    0x1.da9e603db3285p+0,  0x1.c2300696db532p-54,
+    0x1.dfc97337b9b5fp+0, -0x1.1a5cd4f184b5cp-54,
+    0x1.e502ee78b3ff6p+0,  0x1.39e8980a9cc8fp-55,
+    0x1.ea4afa2a490dap+0, -0x1.e9c23179c2893p-54,
+    0x1.efa1bee615a27p+0,  0x1.dc7f486a4b6b0p-54,
+    0x1.f50765b6e4540p+0,  0x1.9d3e12dd8a18bp-54,
+    0x1.fa7c1819e90d8p+0,  0x1.74853f3a5931ep-55};
+
+/* For i = 0, ..., 66,
+     TBL2[2*i] is a double precision number near (i+1)*2^-6, and
+     TBL2[2*i+1] = exp(TBL2[2*i]) to within a relative error less
+     than 2^-60.
+
+   For i = 67, ..., 133,
+     TBL2[2*i] is a double precision number near -(i+1)*2^-6, and
+     TBL2[2*i+1] = exp(TBL2[2*i]) to within a relative error less
+     than 2^-60.  */
+
+static const double TBL2[268] = {
+    0x1.ffffffffffc82p-7,   0x1.04080ab55de32p+0,
+    0x1.fffffffffffdbp-6,   0x1.08205601127ecp+0,
+    0x1.80000000000a0p-5,   0x1.0c49236829e91p+0,
+    0x1.fffffffffff79p-5,   0x1.1082b577d34e9p+0,
+    0x1.3fffffffffffcp-4,   0x1.14cd4fc989cd6p+0,
+    0x1.8000000000060p-4,   0x1.192937074e0d4p+0,
+    0x1.c000000000061p-4,   0x1.1d96b0eff0e80p+0,
+    0x1.fffffffffffd6p-4,   0x1.2216045b6f5cap+0,
+    0x1.1ffffffffff58p-3,   0x1.26a7793f6014cp+0,
+    0x1.3ffffffffff75p-3,   0x1.2b4b58b372c65p+0,
+    0x1.5ffffffffff00p-3,   0x1.3001ecf601ad1p+0,
+    0x1.8000000000020p-3,   0x1.34cb8170b583ap+0,
+    0x1.9ffffffffa629p-3,   0x1.39a862bd3b344p+0,
+    0x1.c00000000000fp-3,   0x1.3e98deaa11dcep+0,
+    0x1.e00000000007fp-3,   0x1.439d443f5f16dp+0,
+    0x1.0000000000072p-2,   0x1.48b5e3c3e81abp+0,
+    0x1.0fffffffffecap-2,   0x1.4de30ec211dfbp+0,
+    0x1.1ffffffffff8fp-2,   0x1.5325180cfacd2p+0,
+    0x1.300000000003bp-2,   0x1.587c53c5a7b04p+0,
+    0x1.4000000000034p-2,   0x1.5de9176046007p+0,
+    0x1.4ffffffffff89p-2,   0x1.636bb9a98322fp+0,
+    0x1.5ffffffffffe7p-2,   0x1.690492cbf942ap+0,
+    0x1.6ffffffffff78p-2,   0x1.6eb3fc55b1e45p+0,
+    0x1.7ffffffffff65p-2,   0x1.747a513dbef32p+0,
+    0x1.8ffffffffffd5p-2,   0x1.7a57ede9ea22ep+0,
+    0x1.9ffffffffff6ep-2,   0x1.804d30347b50fp+0,
+    0x1.affffffffffc3p-2,   0x1.865a7772164aep+0,
+    0x1.c000000000053p-2,   0x1.8c802477b0030p+0,
+    0x1.d00000000004dp-2,   0x1.92be99a09bf1ep+0,
+    0x1.e000000000096p-2,   0x1.99163ad4b1e08p+0,
+    0x1.efffffffffefap-2,   0x1.9f876d8e8c4fcp+0,
+    0x1.fffffffffffd0p-2,   0x1.a61298e1e0688p+0,
+    0x1.0800000000002p-1,   0x1.acb82581eee56p+0,
+    0x1.100000000001fp-1,   0x1.b3787dc80f979p+0,
+    0x1.17ffffffffff8p-1,   0x1.ba540dba56e4fp+0,
+    0x1.1fffffffffffap-1,   0x1.c14b431256441p+0,
+    0x1.27fffffffffc4p-1,   0x1.c85e8d43f7c9bp+0,
+    0x1.2fffffffffffdp-1,   0x1.cf8e5d84758a6p+0,
+    0x1.380000000001fp-1,   0x1.d6db26d16cd84p+0,
+    0x1.3ffffffffffd8p-1,   0x1.de455df80e39bp+0,
+    0x1.4800000000052p-1,   0x1.e5cd799c6a59cp+0,
+    0x1.4ffffffffffc8p-1,   0x1.ed73f240dc10cp+0,
+    0x1.5800000000013p-1,   0x1.f539424d90f71p+0,
+    0x1.5ffffffffffbcp-1,   0x1.fd1de6182f885p+0,
+    0x1.680000000002dp-1,   0x1.02912df5ce741p+1,
+    0x1.7000000000040p-1,   0x1.06a39207f0a2ap+1,
+    0x1.780000000004fp-1,   0x1.0ac660691652ap+1,
+    0x1.7ffffffffff6fp-1,   0x1.0ef9db467dcabp+1,
+    0x1.87fffffffffe5p-1,   0x1.133e45d82e943p+1,
+    0x1.9000000000035p-1,   0x1.1793e4652cc6dp+1,
+    0x1.97fffffffffb3p-1,   0x1.1bfafc47bda48p+1,
+    0x1.a000000000000p-1,   0x1.2073d3f1bd518p+1,
+    0x1.a80000000004ap-1,   0x1.24feb2f105ce2p+1,
+    0x1.affffffffffedp-1,   0x1.299be1f3e7f11p+1,
+    0x1.b7ffffffffffbp-1,   0x1.2e4baacdb6611p+1,
+    0x1.c00000000001dp-1,   0x1.330e587b62b39p+1,
+    0x1.c800000000079p-1,   0x1.37e437282d538p+1,
+    0x1.cffffffffff51p-1,   0x1.3ccd943268248p+1,
+    0x1.d7fffffffff74p-1,   0x1.41cabe304cadcp+1,
+    0x1.e000000000011p-1,   0x1.46dc04f4e5343p+1,
+    0x1.e80000000001ep-1,   0x1.4c01b9950a124p+1,
+    0x1.effffffffff9ep-1,   0x1.513c2e6c73196p+1,
+    0x1.f7fffffffffedp-1,   0x1.568bb722dd586p+1,
+    0x1.0000000000034p+0,   0x1.5bf0a8b1457b0p+1,
+    0x1.03fffffffffe2p+0,   0x1.616b5967376dfp+1,
+    0x1.07fffffffff4bp+0,   0x1.66fc20f0337a9p+1,
+    0x1.0bffffffffffdp+0,   0x1.6ca35859290f5p+1,
+   -0x1.fffffffffffe4p-7,   0x1.f80feabfeefa5p-1,
+   -0x1.ffffffffffb0bp-6,   0x1.f03f56a88b5fep-1,
+   -0x1.7ffffffffffa7p-5,   0x1.e88dc6afecfc5p-1,
+   -0x1.ffffffffffea8p-5,   0x1.e0fabfbc702b8p-1,
+   -0x1.3ffffffffffb3p-4,   0x1.d985c89d041acp-1,
+   -0x1.7ffffffffffe3p-4,   0x1.d22e6a0197c06p-1,
+   -0x1.bffffffffff9ap-4,   0x1.caf42e73a4c89p-1,
+   -0x1.fffffffffff98p-4,   0x1.c3d6a24ed822dp-1,
+   -0x1.1ffffffffffe9p-3,   0x1.bcd553b9d7b67p-1,
+   -0x1.3ffffffffffe0p-3,   0x1.b5efd29f24c2dp-1,
+   -0x1.5fffffffff553p-3,   0x1.af25b0a61a9f4p-1,
+   -0x1.7ffffffffff8bp-3,   0x1.a876812c08794p-1,
+   -0x1.9fffffffffe51p-3,   0x1.a1e1d93d68828p-1,
+   -0x1.bffffffffff6ep-3,   0x1.9b674f8f2f3f5p-1,
+   -0x1.dffffffffff7fp-3,   0x1.95067c7837a0cp-1,
+   -0x1.fffffffffff7ap-3,   0x1.8ebef9eac8225p-1,
+   -0x1.0fffffffffffep-2,   0x1.8890636e31f55p-1,
+   -0x1.1ffffffffff41p-2,   0x1.827a56188975ep-1,
+   -0x1.2ffffffffffbap-2,   0x1.7c7c708877656p-1,
+   -0x1.3fffffffffff8p-2,   0x1.769652df22f81p-1,
+   -0x1.4ffffffffff90p-2,   0x1.70c79eba33c2fp-1,
+   -0x1.5ffffffffffdbp-2,   0x1.6b0ff72deb8aap-1,
+   -0x1.6ffffffffff9ap-2,   0x1.656f00bf5798ep-1,
+   -0x1.7ffffffffff9fp-2,   0x1.5fe4615e98eb0p-1,
+   -0x1.8ffffffffffeep-2,   0x1.5a6fc061433cep-1,
+   -0x1.9fffffffffc4ap-2,   0x1.5510c67cd26cdp-1,
+   -0x1.affffffffff30p-2,   0x1.4fc71dc13566bp-1,
+   -0x1.bfffffffffff0p-2,   0x1.4a9271936fd0ep-1,
+   -0x1.cfffffffffff3p-2,   0x1.45726ea84fb8cp-1,
+   -0x1.dfffffffffff3p-2,   0x1.4066c2ff3912bp-1,
+   -0x1.effffffffff80p-2,   0x1.3b6f1ddd05ab9p-1,
+   -0x1.fffffffffffdfp-2,   0x1.368b2fc6f9614p-1,
+   -0x1.0800000000000p-1,   0x1.31baaa7dca843p-1,
+   -0x1.0ffffffffffa4p-1,   0x1.2cfd40f8bdce4p-1,
+   -0x1.17fffffffff0ap-1,   0x1.2852a760d5ce7p-1,
+   -0x1.2000000000000p-1,   0x1.23ba930c1568bp-1,
+   -0x1.27fffffffffbbp-1,   0x1.1f34ba78d568dp-1,
+   -0x1.2fffffffffe32p-1,   0x1.1ac0d5492c1dbp-1,
+   -0x1.37ffffffff042p-1,   0x1.165e9c3e67ef2p-1,
+   -0x1.3ffffffffff77p-1,   0x1.120dc93499431p-1,
+   -0x1.47fffffffff6bp-1,   0x1.0dce171e34ecep-1,
+   -0x1.4fffffffffff1p-1,   0x1.099f41ffbe588p-1,
+   -0x1.57ffffffffe02p-1,   0x1.058106eb8a7aep-1,
+   -0x1.5ffffffffffe5p-1,   0x1.017323fd9002ep-1,
+   -0x1.67fffffffffb0p-1,   0x1.faeab0ae9386cp-2,
+   -0x1.6ffffffffffb2p-1,   0x1.f30ec837503d7p-2,
+   -0x1.77fffffffff7fp-1,   0x1.eb5210d627133p-2,
+   -0x1.7ffffffffffe8p-1,   0x1.e3b40ebefcd95p-2,
+   -0x1.87fffffffffc8p-1,   0x1.dc3448110dae2p-2,
+   -0x1.8fffffffffb30p-1,   0x1.d4d244cf4ef06p-2,
+   -0x1.97fffffffffefp-1,   0x1.cd8d8ed8ee395p-2,
+   -0x1.9ffffffffffa7p-1,   0x1.c665b1e1f1e5cp-2,
+   -0x1.a7fffffffffdcp-1,   0x1.bf5a3b6bf18d6p-2,
+   -0x1.affffffffff95p-1,   0x1.b86ababeef93bp-2,
+   -0x1.b7fffffffffcbp-1,   0x1.b196c0e24d256p-2,
+   -0x1.bffffffffff32p-1,   0x1.aadde095dadf7p-2,
+   -0x1.c7fffffffff6ap-1,   0x1.a43fae4b047c9p-2,
+   -0x1.cffffffffffb6p-1,   0x1.9dbbc01e182a4p-2,
+   -0x1.d7fffffffffcap-1,   0x1.9751adcfa81ecp-2,
+   -0x1.dffffffffffcdp-1,   0x1.910110be0699ep-2,
+   -0x1.e7ffffffffffbp-1,   0x1.8ac983dedbc69p-2,
+   -0x1.effffffffff88p-1,   0x1.84aaa3b8d51a9p-2,
+   -0x1.f7fffffffffbbp-1,   0x1.7ea40e5d6d92ep-2,
+   -0x1.fffffffffffdbp-1,   0x1.78b56362cef53p-2,
+   -0x1.03fffffffff00p+0,   0x1.72de43ddcb1f2p-2,
+   -0x1.07ffffffffe6fp+0,   0x1.6d1e525bed085p-2,
+   -0x1.0bfffffffffd6p+0,   0x1.677532dda1c57p-2};
+
+static const double
+/* invln2_64 = 64/ln2 - used to scale x to primary range. */
+  invln2_64 = 0x1.71547652b82fep+6,
+/* ln2_64hi = high 32 bits of log(2.)/64. */
+  ln2_64hi = 0x1.62e42fee00000p-7, 
+/* ln2_64lo = remainder bits for log(2.)/64 - ln2_64hi. */
+  ln2_64lo = 0x1.a39ef35793c76p-39,
+/* t2-t5 terms used for polynomial computation.  */
+  t2 = 0x1.5555555555555p-3, /* 1.6666666666526086527e-1 */
+  t3 = 0x1.5555555555555p-5, /* 4.1666666666226079285e-2 */
+  t4 = 0x1.1111111111111p-7, /* 8.3333679843421958056e-3 */
+  t5 = 0x1.6c16c16c16c17p-10, /* 1.3888949086377719040e-3 */
+/* Maximum value for x to not overflow.  */
+  threshold1 = 0x1.62e42fefa39efp+9, /* 7.09782712893383973096e+02 */
+/* Maximum value for -x to not underflow to zero in FE_TONEAREST mode.  */
+  threshold2 = 0x1.74910d52d3051p+9, /* 7.45133219101941108420e+02 */
+/* Scaling factor used when result near zero.  */
+  twom54 = 0x1.0000000000000p-54; /* 5.55111512312578270212e-17 */
diff --git a/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c b/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c
deleted file mode 100644
index ba56174..0000000
--- a/sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,86 +0,0 @@ 
-/*
- * IBM Accurate Mathematical Library
- * written by International Business Machines Corp.
- * Copyright (C) 2001-2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
- *
- * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
- * it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public License as published by
- * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2.1 of the License, or
- * (at your option) any later version.
- *
- * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
- * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
- * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
- * GNU Lesser General Public License for more details.
- *
- * You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public License
- * along with this program; if not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
- */
-/**************************************************************************/
-/*  MODULE_NAME:slowexp.c                                                 */
-/*                                                                        */
-/*  FUNCTION:slowexp                                                      */
-/*                                                                        */
-/*  FILES NEEDED:mpa.h                                                    */
-/*               mpa.c mpexp.c                                            */
-/*                                                                        */
-/*Converting from double precision to Multi-precision and calculating     */
-/* e^x                                                                    */
-/**************************************************************************/
-#include <math_private.h>
-
-#include <stap-probe.h>
-
-#ifndef USE_LONG_DOUBLE_FOR_MP
-# include "mpa.h"
-void __mpexp (mp_no *x, mp_no *y, int p);
-#endif
-
-#ifndef SECTION
-# define SECTION
-#endif
-
-/*Converting from double precision to Multi-precision and calculating  e^x */
-double
-SECTION
-__slowexp (double x)
-{
-#ifndef USE_LONG_DOUBLE_FOR_MP
-  double w, z, res, eps = 3.0e-26;
-  int p;
-  mp_no mpx, mpy, mpz, mpw, mpeps, mpcor;
-
-  /* Use the multiple precision __MPEXP function to compute the exponential
-     First at 144 bits and if it is not accurate enough, at 768 bits.  */
-  p = 6;
-  __dbl_mp (x, &mpx, p);
-  __mpexp (&mpx, &mpy, p);
-  __dbl_mp (eps, &mpeps, p);
-  __mul (&mpeps, &mpy, &mpcor, p);
-  __add (&mpy, &mpcor, &mpw, p);
-  __sub (&mpy, &mpcor, &mpz, p);
-  __mp_dbl (&mpw, &w, p);
-  __mp_dbl (&mpz, &z, p);
-  if (w == z)
-    {
-      /* Track how often we get to the slow exp code plus
-	 its input/output values.  */
-      LIBC_PROBE (slowexp_p6, 2, &x, &w);
-      return w;
-    }
-  else
-    {
-      p = 32;
-      __dbl_mp (x, &mpx, p);
-      __mpexp (&mpx, &mpy, p);
-      __mp_dbl (&mpy, &res, p);
-
-      /* Track how often we get to the uber-slow exp code plus
-	 its input/output values.  */
-      LIBC_PROBE (slowexp_p32, 2, &x, &res);
-      return res;
-    }
-#else
-  return (double) __ieee754_expl((long double)x);
-#endif
-}
diff --git a/sysdeps/m68k/m680x0/fpu/slowexp.c b/sysdeps/m68k/m680x0/fpu/slowexp.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 1cc8931..0000000
--- a/sysdeps/m68k/m680x0/fpu/slowexp.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1 +0,0 @@ 
-/* Not needed.  */
diff --git a/sysdeps/powerpc/power4/fpu/Makefile b/sysdeps/powerpc/power4/fpu/Makefile
index e17d32f..ded9976 100644
--- a/sysdeps/powerpc/power4/fpu/Makefile
+++ b/sysdeps/powerpc/power4/fpu/Makefile
@@ -3,5 +3,4 @@ 
 ifeq ($(subdir),math)
 CFLAGS-mpa.c += --param max-unroll-times=4 -funroll-loops -fpeel-loops
 CPPFLAGS-slowpow.c += -DUSE_LONG_DOUBLE_FOR_MP=1
-CPPFLAGS-slowexp.c += -DUSE_LONG_DOUBLE_FOR_MP=1
 endif
diff --git a/sysdeps/sparc/fpu/libm-test-ulps b/sysdeps/sparc/fpu/libm-test-ulps
index 4c2f726..f4f78ef 100644
--- a/sysdeps/sparc/fpu/libm-test-ulps
+++ b/sysdeps/sparc/fpu/libm-test-ulps
@@ -1508,7 +1508,9 @@  ildouble: 5
 ldouble: 5
 
 Function: "exp":
+double: 1
 float: 1
+idouble: 1
 ifloat: 1
 ildouble: 1
 ldouble: 1
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/libm-test-ulps b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/libm-test-ulps
index 85552bd..394a57c 100644
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/libm-test-ulps
+++ b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/libm-test-ulps
@@ -1902,7 +1902,9 @@  ildouble: 5
 ldouble: 5
 
 Function: "exp":
+double: 1
 float128: 1
+idouble: 1
 ifloat128: 1
 ildouble: 1
 ldouble: 1
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/Makefile b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/Makefile
index 9a89bfc..6935ac3 100644
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/Makefile
+++ b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/Makefile
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@  libm-sysdep_routines += s_ceil-sse4_1 s_ceilf-sse4_1 s_floor-sse4_1 \
 
 libm-sysdep_routines += e_exp-fma e_log-fma e_pow-fma s_atan-fma \
 			e_asin-fma e_atan2-fma s_sin-fma s_tan-fma \
-			mplog-fma mpa-fma slowexp-fma slowpow-fma \
+			mplog-fma mpa-fma slowpow-fma \
 			sincos32-fma doasin-fma dosincos-fma \
 			halfulp-fma mpexp-fma \
 			mpatan2-fma mpatan-fma mpsqrt-fma mptan-fma
@@ -32,7 +32,6 @@  CFLAGS-mpsqrt-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
 CFLAGS-mptan-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
 CFLAGS-s_atan-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
 CFLAGS-sincos32-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
-CFLAGS-slowexp-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
 CFLAGS-slowpow-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
 CFLAGS-s_sin-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
 CFLAGS-s_tan-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
@@ -53,7 +52,7 @@  CFLAGS-s_sincosf-fma.c = -mfma -mavx2
 
 libm-sysdep_routines += e_exp-fma4 e_log-fma4 e_pow-fma4 s_atan-fma4 \
 			e_asin-fma4 e_atan2-fma4 s_sin-fma4 s_tan-fma4 \
-			mplog-fma4 mpa-fma4 slowexp-fma4 slowpow-fma4 \
+			mplog-fma4 mpa-fma4 slowpow-fma4 \
 			sincos32-fma4 doasin-fma4 dosincos-fma4 \
 			halfulp-fma4 mpexp-fma4 \
 			mpatan2-fma4 mpatan-fma4 mpsqrt-fma4 mptan-fma4
@@ -75,14 +74,13 @@  CFLAGS-mpsqrt-fma4.c = -mfma4
 CFLAGS-mptan-fma4.c = -mfma4
 CFLAGS-s_atan-fma4.c = -mfma4
 CFLAGS-sincos32-fma4.c = -mfma4
-CFLAGS-slowexp-fma4.c = -mfma4
 CFLAGS-slowpow-fma4.c = -mfma4
 CFLAGS-s_sin-fma4.c = -mfma4
 CFLAGS-s_tan-fma4.c = -mfma4
 
 libm-sysdep_routines += e_exp-avx e_log-avx s_atan-avx \
 			e_atan2-avx s_sin-avx s_tan-avx \
-			mplog-avx mpa-avx slowexp-avx \
+			mplog-avx mpa-avx \
 			mpexp-avx
 
 CFLAGS-e_atan2-avx.c = -msse2avx -DSSE2AVX
@@ -93,7 +91,6 @@  CFLAGS-mpexp-avx.c = -msse2avx -DSSE2AVX
 CFLAGS-mplog-avx.c = -msse2avx -DSSE2AVX
 CFLAGS-s_atan-avx.c = -msse2avx -DSSE2AVX
 CFLAGS-s_sin-avx.c = -msse2avx -DSSE2AVX
-CFLAGS-slowexp-avx.c = -msse2avx -DSSE2AVX
 CFLAGS-s_tan-avx.c = -msse2avx -DSSE2AVX
 endif
 
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-avx.c b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-avx.c
index ee5dd6d..afd9174 100644
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-avx.c
+++ b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-avx.c
@@ -1,6 +1,5 @@ 
 #define __ieee754_exp __ieee754_exp_avx
 #define __exp1 __exp1_avx
-#define __slowexp __slowexp_avx
 #define SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".text.avx")))
 
 #include <sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c>
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma.c b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma.c
index 6e0fdb7..765b1b9 100644
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma.c
+++ b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma.c
@@ -1,6 +1,5 @@ 
 #define __ieee754_exp __ieee754_exp_fma
 #define __exp1 __exp1_fma
-#define __slowexp __slowexp_fma
 #define SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".text.fma")))
 
 #include <sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c>
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma4.c b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma4.c
index ae6eb67..9ac7aca 100644
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma4.c
+++ b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/e_exp-fma4.c
@@ -1,6 +1,5 @@ 
 #define __ieee754_exp __ieee754_exp_fma4
 #define __exp1 __exp1_fma4
-#define __slowexp __slowexp_fma4
 #define SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".text.fma4")))
 
 #include <sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/e_exp.c>
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-avx.c b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-avx.c
deleted file mode 100644
index d01c6d7..0000000
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-avx.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,9 +0,0 @@ 
-#define __slowexp __slowexp_avx
-#define __add __add_avx
-#define __dbl_mp __dbl_mp_avx
-#define __mpexp __mpexp_avx
-#define __mul __mul_avx
-#define __sub __sub_avx
-#define SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".text.avx")))
-
-#include <sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c>
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma.c b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 6fffca1..0000000
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,9 +0,0 @@ 
-#define __slowexp __slowexp_fma
-#define __add __add_fma
-#define __dbl_mp __dbl_mp_fma
-#define __mpexp __mpexp_fma
-#define __mul __mul_fma
-#define __sub __sub_fma
-#define SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".text.fma")))
-
-#include <sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c>
diff --git a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma4.c b/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma4.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 3bcde84..0000000
--- a/sysdeps/x86_64/fpu/multiarch/slowexp-fma4.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,9 +0,0 @@ 
-#define __slowexp __slowexp_fma4
-#define __add __add_fma4
-#define __dbl_mp __dbl_mp_fma4
-#define __mpexp __mpexp_fma4
-#define __mul __mul_fma4
-#define __sub __sub_fma4
-#define SECTION __attribute__ ((section (".text.fma4")))
-
-#include <sysdeps/ieee754/dbl-64/slowexp.c>