Patchwork Fix integer overflows in internal memalign and malloc functions [BZ #22343]

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Submitter Paul Eggert
Date Jan. 4, 2018, 8:32 p.m.
Message ID <7e9c6bd0-ddb8-72fa-4cde-6597c3d8641e@cs.ucla.edu>
Download mbox | patch
Permalink /patch/25214/
State New
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Comments

Paul Eggert - Jan. 4, 2018, 8:32 p.m.
Arjun Shankar wrote:
> +      (sz) = request2size (req);        \
> +      if (((sz) < (req))

This does not work correctly if sz is signed, which is allowed by the current 
API: INTERNAL_SIZE_T is allowed to be signed, and sz might be INTERNAL_SIZE_T.

Perhaps the best fix would be to remove INTERNAL_SIZE_T and replace it with 
size_t everywhere; there's no real reason for INTERNAL_SIZE_T. Alternatively, we 
could change the documentation for INTERNAL_SIZE_T to say that it must be an 
unsigned type; this would be a simpler patch.

> +  /* Check for overflow.  */
> +  if (nb > SIZE_MAX - alignment - MINSIZE)
> +    {
> +      __set_errno (ENOMEM);
> +      return 0;
> +    }

This causes the code to do an unnecessary overflow check, as it already checked 
nb against a (wrong) upper bound earlier.

How about something like the attached patch for the code, instead? (I haven't 
tested this at all.)
Carlos O'Donell - Jan. 4, 2018, 11:07 p.m.
On 01/04/2018 12:32 PM, Paul Eggert wrote:
> Arjun Shankar wrote:
>> +      (sz) = request2size (req);        \
>> +      if (((sz) < (req))
> 
> This does not work correctly if sz is signed, which is allowed by the
> current API: INTERNAL_SIZE_T is allowed to be signed, and sz might be
> INTERNAL_SIZE_T.

Good catch. I had not noticed that malloc-internals.h could override
INTERNAL_SIZE_T and make the above check against a signed type, for
which such overflow is undefined behaviour.

The reason I didn't think this is that we have *tons* of checks that
would break if we actually made this signed, so the fix you request
is correct.

> Perhaps the best fix would be to remove INTERNAL_SIZE_T and replace
> it with size_t everywhere; there's no real reason for
> INTERNAL_SIZE_T. Alternatively, we could change the documentation for
> INTERNAL_SIZE_T to say that it must be an unsigned type; this would
> be a simpler patch.

I agree.

>> +  /* Check for overflow.  */
>> +  if (nb > SIZE_MAX - alignment - MINSIZE)
>> +    {
>> +      __set_errno (ENOMEM);
>> +      return 0;
>> +    }
> 
> This causes the code to do an unnecessary overflow check, as it
> already checked nb against a (wrong) upper bound earlier.

You have potential overflow from two sources, the minimum size,
and the alignment. There is some computational overlap in both
cases.

> How about something like the attached patch for the code, instead? (I
> haven't tested this at all.)

That looks pretty good, and is a good suggestion.

It would allow further cleanups, and with a constant MALLOC_ALIGNMENT
the compiler can optimize as required.

I would suggest the following next steps:

* Arjun, give Paul's patch a try, with my suggestions below and see
  if it passes your regression test.
* Repost v2, please include Paul's name in the ChangeLog for all the suggestions
  e.g. your name and Paul's.

> 0001-BZ-22343.patch
> 
> 
> From 0c48d38733ba40c9f0f6561c9736e6b98da930de Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
> From: Paul Eggert <eggert@cs.ucla.edu>
> Date: Thu, 4 Jan 2018 12:25:14 -0800
> Subject: [PATCH] [BZ #22343]
> 
> * malloc/malloc.c (usize2tidx): Remove; unused.
> (requestalign2size): New macro.  Define request2size in its terms.
> (checked_requestalign2size): New macro.
> Define checked_request2size in its terms.
> (_int_memalign): Use it.
> ---
>  ChangeLog                |  8 ++++++++
>  malloc/malloc-internal.h | 15 +++++----------
>  malloc/malloc.c          | 31 ++++++++++++++++++-------------
>  3 files changed, 31 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)
> 
> diff --git a/ChangeLog b/ChangeLog
> index 5be91cf978..0b422836bb 100644
> --- a/ChangeLog
> +++ b/ChangeLog
> @@ -1,3 +1,11 @@
> +2018-01-04  Paul Eggert  <eggert@cs.ucla.edu>
> +
> +	* malloc/malloc.c (usize2tidx): Remove; unused.
> +	(requestalign2size): New macro.  Define request2size in its terms.
> +	(checked_requestalign2size): New macro.
> +	Define checked_request2size in its terms.
> +	(_int_memalign): Use it.
> +
>  2018-01-04  Florian Weimer  <fweimer@redhat.com>
>  
>  	[BZ #22667]
> diff --git a/malloc/malloc-internal.h b/malloc/malloc-internal.h
> index ad054508ee..8d0a68b78b 100644
> --- a/malloc/malloc-internal.h
> +++ b/malloc/malloc-internal.h
> @@ -27,9 +27,7 @@
>  
>     The default version is the same as size_t.
>  
> -   While not strictly necessary, it is best to define this as an
> -   unsigned type, even if size_t is a signed type. This may avoid some
> -   artificial size limitations on some systems.
> +   This type must be unsigned.

OK.

>  
>     On a 64-bit machine, you may be able to reduce malloc overhead by
>     defining INTERNAL_SIZE_T to be a 32 bit `unsigned int' at the
> @@ -40,17 +38,14 @@
>     potential advantages of decreasing size_t word size.
>  
>     Implementors: Beware of the possible combinations of:
> -     - INTERNAL_SIZE_T might be signed or unsigned, might be 32 or 64 bits,
> +     - INTERNAL_SIZE_T might be 32 or 64 bits,

OK.

>         and might be the same width as int or as long
>       - size_t might have different width and signedness as INTERNAL_SIZE_T
>       - int and long might be 32 or 64 bits, and might be the same width
>  
> -   To deal with this, most comparisons and difference computations
> -   among INTERNAL_SIZE_Ts should cast them to unsigned long, being
> -   aware of the fact that casting an unsigned int to a wider long does
> -   not sign-extend. (This also makes checking for negative numbers
> -   awkward.) Some of these casts result in harmless compiler warnings
> -   on some systems.  */
> +   Take care when comparing INTERNAL_SIZE_T to signed integer values,
> +   as the comparisons might (or might not) treat negative signed
> +   values as if they were large unsigned values.  */
>  #ifndef INTERNAL_SIZE_T
>  # define INTERNAL_SIZE_T size_t
>  #endif

OK.

> diff --git a/malloc/malloc.c b/malloc/malloc.c
> index 48106f9bd4..9e8a10c9f5 100644
> --- a/malloc/malloc.c
> +++ b/malloc/malloc.c
> @@ -312,8 +312,6 @@ __malloc_assert (const char *assertion, const char *file, unsigned int line,
>  
>  /* When "x" is from chunksize().  */
>  # define csize2tidx(x) (((x) - MINSIZE + MALLOC_ALIGNMENT - 1) / MALLOC_ALIGNMENT)
> -/* When "x" is a user-provided size.  */
> -# define usize2tidx(x) csize2tidx (request2size (x))

OK.

>  
>  /* With rounding and alignment, the bins are...
>     idx 0   bytes 0..24 (64-bit) or 0..12 (32-bit)
> @@ -1220,18 +1218,27 @@ nextchunk-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
>  /* pad request bytes into a usable size -- internal version */
>  
>  #define request2size(req)                                         \
> -  (((req) + SIZE_SZ + MALLOC_ALIGN_MASK < MINSIZE)  ?             \
> -   MINSIZE :                                                      \
> -   ((req) + SIZE_SZ + MALLOC_ALIGN_MASK) & ~MALLOC_ALIGN_MASK)
> +  requestalign2size(req, MALLOC_ALIGNMENT)
> +#define requestalign2size(req, align)				  \
> +  (((req) + SIZE_SZ + (align) - 1 < MINSIZE)			  \
> +   ? MINSIZE							  \
> +   : ((req) + SIZE_SZ + (align) - 1) & ~((align) - 1))

Bespoke alignment code. Use ALIGN_UP or PTR_ALIGN_UP from libc-pointer-arith.h.

>  
>  /*  Same, except also perform argument check */
>  
>  #define checked_request2size(req, sz)                             \
> -  if (REQUEST_OUT_OF_RANGE (req)) {					      \
> -      __set_errno (ENOMEM);						      \
> -      return 0;								      \
> -    }									      \
> -  (sz) = request2size (req);
> +  checked_requestalign2size(req, MALLOC_ALIGNMENT, sz)
> +#define checked_requestalign2size(req, align, sz)			\
> +  do									\
> +    {									\
> +      (sz) = requestalign2size (req, align);				\
> +      if ((sz) < (req) || REQUEST_OUT_OF_RANGE (sz))			\
> +	{								\
> +	  __set_errno (ENOMEM);						\
> +	  return 0;							\
> +	}								\
> +    }									\
> +  while (0)

OK.

>  
>  /*
>     --------------- Physical chunk operations ---------------
> @@ -4662,9 +4669,7 @@ _int_memalign (mstate av, size_t alignment, size_t bytes)
>    unsigned long remainder_size;   /* its size */
>    INTERNAL_SIZE_T size;
>  
> -
> -
> -  checked_request2size (bytes, nb);
> +  checked_requestalign2size (bytes, alignment, nb);

OK.

>  
>    /*
>       Strategy: find a spot within that chunk that meets the alignment
> -- 2.14.3
Arjun Shankar - Jan. 16, 2018, 4:27 p.m.
Carlos wrote:

> * Arjun, give Paul's patch a try, with my suggestions below and see
>   if it passes your regression test.
> * Repost v2, please include Paul's name in the ChangeLog for all the suggestions
>   e.g. your name and Paul's.

I tried this and it failed with the new test case in my original patch
because it caused alignment to be added twice: first with the new use of
checked_requestalign2size then immediately after in the call to _int_malloc
around line 4688 in _int_memalign.

#1:
-  checked_request2size (bytes, nb);
+  checked_requestalign2size (bytes, alignment, nb);

#2:
> m = (char *) (_int_malloc (av, nb + alignment + MINSIZE));

I thought this was a simple matter of removing the unnecessary addition...

> m = (char *) (_int_malloc (av, nb + MINSIZE));

...but that triggered several testsuite failures:

> FAIL: malloc/tst-malloc-thread-fail
> FAIL: malloc/tst-memalign
> FAIL: malloc/tst-posix_memalign
> FAIL: malloc/tst-pvalloc
> FAIL: malloc/tst-valloc

Before this change, this code was using checked_request2size which adds
MALLOC_ALIGNMENT and then aligns up which - while it makes no sense (to me)
in cases where the alignment is isn't MALLOC_ALIGNMENT - somehow seems to
work. It seems to me that cleaning this up might not be simple. In addition,
Paul has already said:

> Perhaps the best fix would be to remove INTERNAL_SIZE_T and replace
> it with size_t everywhere; there's no real reason for
> INTERNAL_SIZE_T. Alternatively, we could change the documentation for
> INTERNAL_SIZE_T to say that it must be an unsigned type; this would
> be a simpler patch.

Given this and given that, as Carlos says:

> The reason I didn't think this is that we have *tons* of checks that
> would break if we actually made this signed, so the fix you request
> is correct.

I vote that we consider reviewing and checking in my original attempt at a
fix prior to the 2.27 release, and in lieu of this we file a separate bug to
track the removal of technical debt that already exists in the code. I'll be
happy to take Paul's patch and run with it once master opens for development
again.

Cheers,
Arjun
Carlos O'Donell - Jan. 16, 2018, 8:59 p.m.
On 01/16/2018 08:27 AM, Arjun Shankar wrote:
> I vote that we consider reviewing and checking in my original attempt at a
> fix prior to the 2.27 release, and in lieu of this we file a separate bug to
> track the removal of technical debt that already exists in the code. I'll be
> happy to take Paul's patch and run with it once master opens for development
> again.

I think an immediate fix is the right solution for 2.27, these overflows in
malloc are bad.
Paul Eggert - Jan. 17, 2018, 6:27 a.m.
Carlos O'Donell wrote:
> I think an immediate fix is the right solution for 2.27, these overflows in
> malloc are bad.

Yes, that sounds right to me too. Though we really need to fix the more-general 
problem in the not-too-distant future.
Carlos O'Donell - Jan. 17, 2018, 2:59 p.m.
On 01/16/2018 10:27 PM, Paul Eggert wrote:
> Carlos O'Donell wrote:
>> I think an immediate fix is the right solution for 2.27, these overflows in
>> malloc are bad.
> 
> Yes, that sounds right to me too. Though we really need to fix the
> more-general problem in the not-too-distant future.

Agreed. Thanks for your support Paul. As Arjun mentioned we'll refactor this
in 2.28.

These checks should be done at the entry points, and a good cleanup moves
them all outward to such entry points and avoids duplicating the work in
each internal function.

Patch

From 0c48d38733ba40c9f0f6561c9736e6b98da930de Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Paul Eggert <eggert@cs.ucla.edu>
Date: Thu, 4 Jan 2018 12:25:14 -0800
Subject: [PATCH] [BZ #22343]

* malloc/malloc.c (usize2tidx): Remove; unused.
(requestalign2size): New macro.  Define request2size in its terms.
(checked_requestalign2size): New macro.
Define checked_request2size in its terms.
(_int_memalign): Use it.
---
 ChangeLog                |  8 ++++++++
 malloc/malloc-internal.h | 15 +++++----------
 malloc/malloc.c          | 31 ++++++++++++++++++-------------
 3 files changed, 31 insertions(+), 23 deletions(-)

diff --git a/ChangeLog b/ChangeLog
index 5be91cf978..0b422836bb 100644
--- a/ChangeLog
+++ b/ChangeLog
@@ -1,3 +1,11 @@ 
+2018-01-04  Paul Eggert  <eggert@cs.ucla.edu>
+
+	* malloc/malloc.c (usize2tidx): Remove; unused.
+	(requestalign2size): New macro.  Define request2size in its terms.
+	(checked_requestalign2size): New macro.
+	Define checked_request2size in its terms.
+	(_int_memalign): Use it.
+
 2018-01-04  Florian Weimer  <fweimer@redhat.com>
 
 	[BZ #22667]
diff --git a/malloc/malloc-internal.h b/malloc/malloc-internal.h
index ad054508ee..8d0a68b78b 100644
--- a/malloc/malloc-internal.h
+++ b/malloc/malloc-internal.h
@@ -27,9 +27,7 @@ 
 
    The default version is the same as size_t.
 
-   While not strictly necessary, it is best to define this as an
-   unsigned type, even if size_t is a signed type. This may avoid some
-   artificial size limitations on some systems.
+   This type must be unsigned.
 
    On a 64-bit machine, you may be able to reduce malloc overhead by
    defining INTERNAL_SIZE_T to be a 32 bit `unsigned int' at the
@@ -40,17 +38,14 @@ 
    potential advantages of decreasing size_t word size.
 
    Implementors: Beware of the possible combinations of:
-     - INTERNAL_SIZE_T might be signed or unsigned, might be 32 or 64 bits,
+     - INTERNAL_SIZE_T might be 32 or 64 bits,
        and might be the same width as int or as long
      - size_t might have different width and signedness as INTERNAL_SIZE_T
      - int and long might be 32 or 64 bits, and might be the same width
 
-   To deal with this, most comparisons and difference computations
-   among INTERNAL_SIZE_Ts should cast them to unsigned long, being
-   aware of the fact that casting an unsigned int to a wider long does
-   not sign-extend. (This also makes checking for negative numbers
-   awkward.) Some of these casts result in harmless compiler warnings
-   on some systems.  */
+   Take care when comparing INTERNAL_SIZE_T to signed integer values,
+   as the comparisons might (or might not) treat negative signed
+   values as if they were large unsigned values.  */
 #ifndef INTERNAL_SIZE_T
 # define INTERNAL_SIZE_T size_t
 #endif
diff --git a/malloc/malloc.c b/malloc/malloc.c
index 48106f9bd4..9e8a10c9f5 100644
--- a/malloc/malloc.c
+++ b/malloc/malloc.c
@@ -312,8 +312,6 @@  __malloc_assert (const char *assertion, const char *file, unsigned int line,
 
 /* When "x" is from chunksize().  */
 # define csize2tidx(x) (((x) - MINSIZE + MALLOC_ALIGNMENT - 1) / MALLOC_ALIGNMENT)
-/* When "x" is a user-provided size.  */
-# define usize2tidx(x) csize2tidx (request2size (x))
 
 /* With rounding and alignment, the bins are...
    idx 0   bytes 0..24 (64-bit) or 0..12 (32-bit)
@@ -1220,18 +1218,27 @@  nextchunk-> +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
 /* pad request bytes into a usable size -- internal version */
 
 #define request2size(req)                                         \
-  (((req) + SIZE_SZ + MALLOC_ALIGN_MASK < MINSIZE)  ?             \
-   MINSIZE :                                                      \
-   ((req) + SIZE_SZ + MALLOC_ALIGN_MASK) & ~MALLOC_ALIGN_MASK)
+  requestalign2size(req, MALLOC_ALIGNMENT)
+#define requestalign2size(req, align)				  \
+  (((req) + SIZE_SZ + (align) - 1 < MINSIZE)			  \
+   ? MINSIZE							  \
+   : ((req) + SIZE_SZ + (align) - 1) & ~((align) - 1))
 
 /*  Same, except also perform argument check */
 
 #define checked_request2size(req, sz)                             \
-  if (REQUEST_OUT_OF_RANGE (req)) {					      \
-      __set_errno (ENOMEM);						      \
-      return 0;								      \
-    }									      \
-  (sz) = request2size (req);
+  checked_requestalign2size(req, MALLOC_ALIGNMENT, sz)
+#define checked_requestalign2size(req, align, sz)			\
+  do									\
+    {									\
+      (sz) = requestalign2size (req, align);				\
+      if ((sz) < (req) || REQUEST_OUT_OF_RANGE (sz))			\
+	{								\
+	  __set_errno (ENOMEM);						\
+	  return 0;							\
+	}								\
+    }									\
+  while (0)
 
 /*
    --------------- Physical chunk operations ---------------
@@ -4662,9 +4669,7 @@  _int_memalign (mstate av, size_t alignment, size_t bytes)
   unsigned long remainder_size;   /* its size */
   INTERNAL_SIZE_T size;
 
-
-
-  checked_request2size (bytes, nb);
+  checked_requestalign2size (bytes, alignment, nb);
 
   /*
      Strategy: find a spot within that chunk that meets the alignment
-- 
2.14.3